For research use only.
Catalog No.S2757 Synonyms: Evofosfamide
CAS No. 918633-87-1
Evofosfamide (TH-302) is selective hypoxia-activated prodrug targeting hypoxic regions of solid tumors with IC50 of 19 nM, demonstrates 270-fold enhanced cytotoxicity under hypoxia versus their potency under aerobic conditions, stable to cytochrome P450 metabolism.
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|Description||Evofosfamide (TH-302) is selective hypoxia-activated prodrug targeting hypoxic regions of solid tumors with IC50 of 19 nM, demonstrates 270-fold enhanced cytotoxicity under hypoxia versus their potency under aerobic conditions, stable to cytochrome P450 metabolism.|
TH-302 is selectively potent under hypoxia and stable to liver microsomes. Substitution of the chlorine with bromine on the phosphorus mustard in 3b increases the potency by 10-fold and maintaines the high hypoxic selectivity [Hypoxia cytotoxicity ratio (HCR) = 270]. In both human lung cancer H460 cells and human colon cancer HT29 cells, potent cytotoxicity of TH-302 is observed under N2. TH-302 inhibits H460 cells and HT29 cells with IC90 of 0.1 μM and 0.2 μM, respectively.  TH-302 shows much enhanced potency in H460 spheroids compared to H460 monolayer cells under normoxia.  TH-302 exhibits potent cytotoxicity to MM cells with hypoxic selectivity and dose dependency. TH-302 can induce G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest under hypoxic conditions. The effect of TH-302 on cell-cycle machinery is mediated by down-regulating cyclin D1/2/3, CDK4/6, p21cip-1, p27kip-1, and pRb expression, whereas CDK2 expression remained undisturbed. TH-302 can induce dose-dependent apoptosis in both human and murine MM cells in hypoxic conditions. TH-302-activated apoptosis is mediated through down-regulating the antiapoptotic proteins BCL-2 and BCL-xL, as well as up-regulating the expression of cleaved proapoptotic protein caspase-3, -8, and -9 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase. In contrast to the hypoxia-specific toxicity, TH-302 shows very low toxicity in normoxic condition, even at high concentrations. 
|In vivo||TH302 inhibits primary tumor growth by 41% on day 25 after implantation, whereas TH302 plus gemcitabine (a nucleoside analog) inhibits primary tumor growth by 96% on day 25.  When TH-302 is administered at 6.25, 12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg in the H460 NSCLC xenograft model QD × 5/wk × 2 wks (once a day for 5 days per week for 2 weeks) i.p., the tumor growth inhibition at Day 22 is 43%, 51%, 75%, and 89%, respectively. TH-302 at 100 mg/kg shows a decrease in blood cell counts 3 days after treatment end, but is totally recovered 7 days post-treatment. TH-302 under all tested regimens exhibits efficacy metrics ranging from 58% to 89% tumor growth inhibition. TH-302 induced cell killing is breathing oxygen concentration dependent, with the greatest cytotoxicity occurring when the tumor-bearing mice are exposed to low oxygen concentrations. Tumor growth is significantly reduced by TH-302 in animals breathing 10% O2 compared with 95% O2 breathing. After TH-302 treatment, the pimonidazole-positive area is significantly decreased at 48 hours after dosing (6.3 % in vehicle vs. 1.8 % in the TH-302 treatment group). |
|In vitro||DMSO||90 mg/mL (200.42 mM)|
|Water||10 mg/mL warmed (22.26 mM)|
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Clinical Trial Information
|NCT Number||Recruitment||interventions||Conditions||Sponsor/Collaborators||Start Date||Phases|
|NCT02020226||Unknown status||Drug: TH-302||Solid Tumors||Threshold Pharmaceuticals||November 2013||Phase 1|
|NCT01833546||Completed||Drug: Evofosfamide|Drug: Gemcitabine||Solid Tumor|Pancreatic Cancer||Merck KGaA Darmstadt Germany|Threshold Pharmaceuticals||April 18 2013||Phase 1|
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