COX

Signaling Pathway Map

Research Area

Inhibitory Selectivity

Isoform-specific Inhibitors

COX Products

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S1261

Celecoxib

Celecoxib is a selective COX-2 inhibitor with IC50 of 40 nM in Sf9 cells.

S1396

Resveratrol

Resveratrol has a wide spectrum of targets including cyclooxygenases(i.e. COX, IC50=1.1 μM), lipooxygenases(LOX, IC50=2.7 μM), kinases, sirtuins and other proteins. It has anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, blood-sugar-lowering and other beneficial cardiovascular effects. Resveratrol induces mitophagy/autophagy and autophagy-dependent apoptosis.

S1255

Nepafenac

Nepafenac is a prodrug of amfenac that acts as an inhibitor of COX-1 and COX-2 activity, used in the treatment of pain and inflammation associated with cataract surgery.

S1638

Ibuprofen

Ibuprofen (Dolgesic) is an anti-inflammatory inhibitor targeting COX-1 and COX-2 with IC50 of 13 μM and 370 μM, respectively.

S1723

Indomethacin

Indomethacin is a nonselective COX1 and COX2 inhibitor with IC50 of 0.1 μg/mL and 5 μg/mL, respectively, used to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling.

S2121New

Licofelone

Licofelone is a dual COX/LOX inhibitor being considered as a treatment for osteoarthritis.

S6615New

ATB 346

ATB 346, a novel hydrogen sulphide-releasing derivative of naproxen with remarkably reduced toxicity, inhibits COX activity. ATB 346 is an anti-inflammatory agent that induces apoptosis of human melanoma cells.

S2595New

FK-3311

FK-3311 is a selective, cell-permeable and orally available inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with antiinflammatory. FK-3311 has protective effects against hepatic warm ischemia-reperfusion injury by marked inhibition of TxA2.

S6780New

TFAP

TFAP is a selective and cell-permeable cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitor with IC50 of 0.8 μM.

S6686New

SC-560

SC-560 is a highly selective COX-1 inhibitor with IC50 of 9 nM, compared with the IC50 of 6.3 μM for COX-2, nearly 1,000-fold higher than with COX-1.

S6685New

Mavacoxib

Mavacoxib is a selective, long-acting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor. Mavacoxib is a novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).

S4360New

Tolmetin Sodium

Tolmetin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug of the arylalkanoic acids. Tolmetin sodium dihydrate is a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent, and acts as a non-selective COX inhibitor.

S2007

Sulindac

Sulindac is a non-steroidal COX inhibitor, which potently inhibits prostaglandin synthesis, used in the treatment of acute or chronic inflammatory conditions.

S3043

Rofecoxib

Rofecoxib is a COX-2 inhibitor with IC50 of 18 nM.

S1734

Meloxicam

Meloxicam is a selective COX inhibitor, used to relieve pain and fever effects.

S4028

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate

Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of steroid drugs, and an interleukin receptor modulator that has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects.

S3023

Bufexamac

Bufexamac is a COX inhibitor for IFN-α release with EC50 of 8.9 μM.

S1204

Melatonin

Melatonin is a MT receptor agonist, used as a dietary supplement. Melatonin is a selective ATF-6 inhibitor and downregulates COX-2. Melatonin enhances mitophagy and regulates the homeostasis of apoptosis and autophagy.

S3017

Aspirin

Aspirin is a salicylate, and irreversible COX1 and COX2 inhibitor, used as an analgesic to relieve minor aches and pains, as an antipyretic to reduce fever, and as an anti-inflammatory medication. Aspirin induces autophagy and stimulates mitophagy.

S1761

Suprofen

Suprofen is a dual COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor, used as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic.

S1713

Piroxicam

Piroxicam is a non-selective COX inhibitor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid and osteoarthritis.

S1328

Etodolac

Etodolac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and a COX inhibitor, used for the treatment of inflammation and pain.

S1645

Ketoprofen

Ketoprofen is a dual COX1/2 inhibitor, used as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug to treat arthritis-related inflammatory pains.

S1903

Diclofenac Sodium

Diclofenac Sodium is a non-selective COX inhibitor with IC50 of 0.5 μg/ml and 0.5 μg/ml for COX-1 and -2 in intact cells, respectively, used as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) to relieve pain and reduce swelling in flammation.

S1518

Ibuprofen Lysine

Ibuprofen Lysine is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

S2047

Lornoxicam

Lornoxicam is a non-steroidal COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor, used as an anti-inflammatory drug to treat pain, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.

S1646

Ketorolac

Ketorolac is a non-selective COX inhibitor of COX-1 and COX-2 with IC50 of 1.23 μM and 3.50 μM, respectively.

S1626

Naproxen Sodium

Naproxen Sodium is a COX inhibitor for COX-1 and COX-2 with IC50 of 8.7 μM and 5.2 μM, respectively.

S1576

Sulfasalazine

Sulfasalazine is a sulfa derivative of mesalazine, used as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Sulfasalazine is a potent and specific inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), TGF-β and COX-2. Sulfasalazine induces ferroptosis, apoptosis and autophagy.

S2903

Lumiracoxib

Lumiracoxib is a novel, selective COX-2 inhibitor with Ki of 0.06 μM. It also inhibits COX1 with Ki of 3 μM.

S2531

Asaraldehyde

Asaraldehyde is a natural COX-2 inhibitor, exhibiting 17-fold selectivity over COX-1.

S1960

Pranoprofen

Pranoprofen is a non-steroidal COX inhibitor, used as an anti-inflammatory drug in ophthalmology.

S3008

Zaltoprofen

Zaltoprofen is an inhibitor of COX-1 and COX-2 for treatment of arthritis.

S2602

Acemetacin

Acemetacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and a glycolic acid ester of indometacin that is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor.

S1959

Tolfenamic Acid

Tolfenamic Acid is a COX-2 inhibitor with IC50 of 0.2 μM.

S4049

Valdecoxib

Valdecoxib is a potent and selective inhibitor of COX-2 with IC50 of 5 nM.

S2577

Phenacetin

Phenacetin is a non-opioid analgesic without anti-inflammatory properties.

S2040

Nimesulide

Nimesulide is a relatively COX-2 selective inhibitor with IC50 of 26 μM.

S4149

Amfenac Sodium Monohydrate

Amfenac Sodium monohydrate is a non-steroidal analgesic anti-inflammatory drug with acetic acid moiety. The IC50 values for COX1 and COX2 is 250 nM and 150 nM, respectively.

S4248

Bromfenac Sodium

Bromfenac Sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which has anti-inflammatory activity and may block prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting cyclooxygenase 1 and 2.

S4051

Nabumetone

Nabumetone is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and its active metabolite inhibits the COX.

S3018

Niflumic acid

Niflumic acid is an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 used for joint and muscular pain.

S3173

Antipyrine

Antipyrine is an analgesic and antipyretic agent; selective COX-3 inhibitor.

S3200

Triflusal

Triflusal irreversibly inhibits the production of thromboxane-B2 in platelets by acetylating cycloxygenase-1.

S4011

Ampiroxicam

Ampiroxicam is a nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor uesd as anti-inflammatory drug.

S9208

Ginsenoside Rb3

Ginsenoside Rb3, extracted from the plant Panax ginseng, plays important roles in cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Ginsenoside Rb3 (0.1-10 μM) is tested for inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)-induced nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) luciferase reporter activity using a human kidney 293T cell-based assay. Ginsenoside Rb3 shows the significant activity with an IC50 of 8.2 μM. Ginsenoside Rb3 also inhibits the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) messenger Ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in a dose-dependent manner after HepG2 cells have been treated with TNF-α (10 ng/mL).

S5177

Naproxen

Naproxen is an anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. It is a nonselective inhibitor of COX-1 and COX-2.

S5418

Parecoxib Sodium

Parecoxib Sodium is a water-soluble, injectable sodium salt form of parecoxib, which is a potent and selective inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2).

S3816

Dehydroevodiamine

Dehydroevodiamine, a constituent of Evodia rutaecarpa, has various biological effects such as hypotensive, negative chronotropic, ion channel depressant, inhibition of nitric oxide production and cerebral blood flow enhancing activities. Dehydroevodiamine inhibits LPS-induced iNOS, COX-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) expression in murine macrophage cells.

S8433

NS-398 (NS398)

NS-398 is a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The IC50 values for human recombinant COX-1 and -2 are 75 and 1.77 μM, respectively.

S4032

Bismuth Subsalicylate

Bismuth Subsalicylate is the active ingredient in Pepto-Bismol and inhibits prostaglandin G/H Synthase 1/2.

S5698

Ketorolac tromethamine salt

Ketorolac tromethamine is a synthetic pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative with anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties. It is a non-selective COX inhibitor with IC50s of 20 nM for both COX-1 and COX-2.

S4628

(+/-)-Sulfinpyrazone

Sulfinpyrazone is one of the most studied platelet COX inhibitors, also a uricosuric agent that competitively inhibits uric acid reabsorption in kidney proximal tubules.

S4136

Carprofen

Carprofen inhibits canine COX2 with IC50 of 30 nM.

S3063

Diclofenac Diethylamine

Diclofenac diethylamine is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug taken to reduce inflammation and as an analgesic reducing pain in certain conditions. Diclofenac exerts its action via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with relative equipotency.

S3974

(+)-Catechin hydrate

Catechins are a plant derived polyphenolic anti-oxidants with phytotoxic properties. (+)-Catechin hydrate is a frequent component of traditional herbal remedies, such as Uncaria rhynchophylla. (+)-Catechin hydrate inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) with an IC50 of 1.4 μM.

S4656

Parecoxib

Parecoxib is a selective COX2 inhibitor.

S4609

Diflunisal

Diflunisal is a difluorophenyl derivate of salicylic acid and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The mechanism of action of diflunisal is as a Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor.

S4176

Trometamol

Trometamol is a proton acceptor used to treat acidemia. It inhibits both isoforms of cyclooxygenases (COX1 and COX2), thereby blocking the conversion of arachidonic acid to pro-inflammatory pro-prostaglandins.

S5520

Phenidone

Phenidone, a dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX), is an organic compound that is primarily used as a photographic developer.

S9029

Prim-o-glucosylcimifugin

Prim-O-glucosylcimifugin is a major constituent in Radix Saposhnikovia that has been long used for the treatment of pyrexia, rheumatism, and cancer in traditional Chinese medicine. It shows potential anticancer activity. Prim-O-glucosylcimifugin downregulates the mRNA and protein expression inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner.

S3931

Ginsenoside Rd

Ginsenoside Rd, a minor ginseng saponin, has several pharmacological activities such as immunosuppressive activity, anti-inflammatory activity, immunological adjuvant, anti-cancer activity and wound-healing activity. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits TNFα-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity with an IC50 of 12.05±0.82 μM in HepG2 cells. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits expression of COX-2 and iNOS mRNA. Ginsenoside Rd also inhibits Ca2+ influx. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits CYP2D6, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2C9, with IC50s of 58.0±4.5 μM, 78.4±5.3 μM, 81.7±2.6 μM, and 85.1±9.1 μM, respectively.

S5019

Indobufen

Indobufen is a reversible platelet aggregation inhibitor. Indobufen is a reversible inhibitor of platelet cyclooxygenase (Cox) activity and suppresses thromboxane synthesis.

S4078

Mefenamic Acid

Mefenamic Acid is a competitive inhibitor of COX-1 and COX-2.

S4651

Etoricoxib

Etoricoxib is a new COX-2 selective inhibitor with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, and potential antineoplastic properties.

S9386

Polygalacic acid

Polygalacic acid is the triterpenoid tetrahydroxyacid isolated from Polygala paenea L.. Polygalacic acid (0-100 μM; 24 hours) significantly decreases the mRNAexpressions of MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-13 and COX-2, which are significantly increased by IL-1β, in a dose-dependent manner.

S4686

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin with potent antioxidant properties. It is a potent peroxyl radical scavenger and inhibits noncompetitively cyclooxygenase activity in many tissues, also inhibits angiogenesis and tumor dormancy through suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene transcription.

S6073

Diclofenac acid

Diclofenac acid is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties, and has been shown to be effective in treating a variety of acute and chronic pain and inflammatory conditions. It inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with relative equipotency.

S4765

Syringaldehyde

Syringaldehyde is an organic compound that occurs naturally in trace amounts. It possesses worthy bioactive properties and is, therefore, used in pharmaceuticals, food, cosmetics, textiles, pulp and paper industries, and even in biological control applications. Syringaldehyde is a polyphenolic compound belonging to the group of flavonoids and is found in different plant species like Manihot esculenta and Magnolia officinalis. Syringaldehyde moderately inhibits COX-2 activity with an IC50 of 3.5 μg/mL[2]. Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities.

S5010

Indometacin Sodium

Indomethacin Sodium is the sodium salt of indomethacin, which is a non-selective, reversible, and competitive inhibitor of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 with anti-inflammatory, analgesic-antipyretic and tocolytic effects.

S4230

Oxaprozin

Oxaprozin is a non-narcotic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to relieve the inflammation, swelling, stiffness, and joint pain associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

S5595

3-Carene

3-Carene is a bicyclic monoterpene in essential oils extracted from pine trees. 3-Carene have potent pharmacological effects on COX-2 overexpression and LPS-induced migration of Raw264.7 macrophages. 3‐carene is shown to significantly stimulate the activity and expression of alkaline phosphatase, an early phase marker of osteoblastic differentiation.

S2349

Rutaecarpine

Rutaecarpine is an indolopyridoquinazolinone alkaloid isolated from Evodia rutaecarpa and related herbs; a new class of COX-2 inhibitor.

S2351

Salicin

Salicin is a phenol β-glycosid produced from willow bark that shows anti-inflammatory effects. It is a natural, non-selective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor.

S4526

Fenbufen

Fenbufen is an orally active phenylalkanoic derivative with anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity. It is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

S3899

Hederagenin

Hederagenin is a highly water insoluble triterpenoid compound that can be found in various plants including Hedera helix and Chenopodium quinoa. It exhibits a variety of biological activities, including potent antitumor properties both in vitro and in vivo.

S5551

6-Paradol

6-Paradol is a minor constituent of ginger, mainly formed from 6-gingerol via 6-shogaol, and exhibits a variety of biological activities including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative activities. Paradol is an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2.

S4539

Salicylic acid

Salicylic acid is a beta hydroxy acid that occurs as a natural compound in plants which is an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis and cyclooxygenase activity.

S9149

Benzoylpaeoniflorin

Benzoylpaeoniflorin, a natural product isolated from Chinese paeony root, could inhibit COX-1 and COX-2 in vitro.

S6457

Flurbiprofen Axetil

Flurbiprofen Axetil is one of the commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that nonselectively inhibits cyclooxygenase.

S4509

4-Aminoantipyrine

4-Aminoantipyrine(Ampyrone) is a metabolite of aminopyrine with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is used as a reagent for biochemical reactions producing peroxides or phenols.

S3872

Guaiacol

Guaiacol is a phenolic natural product first isolated from Guaiac resin and the oxidation of lignin. It is a precursor to various flavorants, such as eugenoland vanillin. Guaiacol, a phenolic compound isolated from Guaiac resin, inhibits LPS-stimulated COX-2 expression and NF-κB activation. Anti-inflammatory activity.

S5309

Propyphenazone (4-Isopropylantipyrine)

Propyphenazone(4-Isopropylantipyrine), an analgesic and antipyretic agent, is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor with anti-inflammatory activity.

S7889

Xanthohumol

Xanthohumol, a prenylated chalcone from hop, inhibits COX-1 and COX-2 activity and shows chemopreventive effects. Phase 1.

S2108

Flunixin Meglumin

Flunixin Meglumin is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) used as analgesic agent with anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity.

S5711

Deracoxib

Deracoxib is a COX-2 inhibitor with >48-fold selectivity over COX-1. It also exhibits inhibitory activity against phosphodiesterase (Ki = 3.6 μM against human PDE4D3).

S3925

(-)-Epicatechin gallate

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), also known as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, is the ester of epigallocatechin and gallic acid, and is a type of catechin with anti-inflammatory effects. (-)-Epicatechin gallate (Epicatechin gallate) inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) with an IC50 of 7.5 μM.

S4295

Meclofenamate Sodium

Meclofenamate Sodium is a dual COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor with IC50 of 40 nM and 50 nM, respectively, used in the treatment of joint, muscular pain, arthritis and dysmenorrhea.

S2272New

Indoprofen

Indoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor. Indoprofen prevents muscle wasting in aged mice through activation of PDK1/AKT pathway.Indoprofen selectively increases SMN2-luciferase reporter protein and endogenous SMN protein.

S9190

Oroxin B

Oroxin B, one of flavonoids isolated from traditional Chinese herbal medicine Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent, selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress in malignant lymphoma cells and has antioxidant activity. Oroxin B significantly inhibits proliferation and induce apoptosis, which may be strongly associated with the inhibiting COX-2/VEGF and PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in SMMC-7721 cells, Oroxin B potentially be used as a novel therapeutic agent for liver cancer.COX-2, VEGF, PI3K, and p-AKT expression levels is found to be downregulated, while PTEN was upregulated after Oroxin B treatment.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S1261

Celecoxib

Celecoxib is a selective COX-2 inhibitor with IC50 of 40 nM in Sf9 cells.

S1396

Resveratrol

Resveratrol has a wide spectrum of targets including cyclooxygenases(i.e. COX, IC50=1.1 μM), lipooxygenases(LOX, IC50=2.7 μM), kinases, sirtuins and other proteins. It has anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, blood-sugar-lowering and other beneficial cardiovascular effects. Resveratrol induces mitophagy/autophagy and autophagy-dependent apoptosis.

S1255

Nepafenac

Nepafenac is a prodrug of amfenac that acts as an inhibitor of COX-1 and COX-2 activity, used in the treatment of pain and inflammation associated with cataract surgery.

S1638

Ibuprofen

Ibuprofen (Dolgesic) is an anti-inflammatory inhibitor targeting COX-1 and COX-2 with IC50 of 13 μM and 370 μM, respectively.

S1723

Indomethacin

Indomethacin is a nonselective COX1 and COX2 inhibitor with IC50 of 0.1 μg/mL and 5 μg/mL, respectively, used to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling.

S2121New

Licofelone

Licofelone is a dual COX/LOX inhibitor being considered as a treatment for osteoarthritis.

S6615New

ATB 346

ATB 346, a novel hydrogen sulphide-releasing derivative of naproxen with remarkably reduced toxicity, inhibits COX activity. ATB 346 is an anti-inflammatory agent that induces apoptosis of human melanoma cells.

S2595New

FK-3311

FK-3311 is a selective, cell-permeable and orally available inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with antiinflammatory. FK-3311 has protective effects against hepatic warm ischemia-reperfusion injury by marked inhibition of TxA2.

S6780New

TFAP

TFAP is a selective and cell-permeable cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitor with IC50 of 0.8 μM.

S6686New

SC-560

SC-560 is a highly selective COX-1 inhibitor with IC50 of 9 nM, compared with the IC50 of 6.3 μM for COX-2, nearly 1,000-fold higher than with COX-1.

S6685New

Mavacoxib

Mavacoxib is a selective, long-acting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor. Mavacoxib is a novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).

S4360New

Tolmetin Sodium

Tolmetin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug of the arylalkanoic acids. Tolmetin sodium dihydrate is a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent, and acts as a non-selective COX inhibitor.

S2007

Sulindac

Sulindac is a non-steroidal COX inhibitor, which potently inhibits prostaglandin synthesis, used in the treatment of acute or chronic inflammatory conditions.

S3043

Rofecoxib

Rofecoxib is a COX-2 inhibitor with IC50 of 18 nM.

S1734

Meloxicam

Meloxicam is a selective COX inhibitor, used to relieve pain and fever effects.

S4028

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate

Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of steroid drugs, and an interleukin receptor modulator that has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects.

S3023

Bufexamac

Bufexamac is a COX inhibitor for IFN-α release with EC50 of 8.9 μM.

S1204

Melatonin

Melatonin is a MT receptor agonist, used as a dietary supplement. Melatonin is a selective ATF-6 inhibitor and downregulates COX-2. Melatonin enhances mitophagy and regulates the homeostasis of apoptosis and autophagy.

S3017

Aspirin

Aspirin is a salicylate, and irreversible COX1 and COX2 inhibitor, used as an analgesic to relieve minor aches and pains, as an antipyretic to reduce fever, and as an anti-inflammatory medication. Aspirin induces autophagy and stimulates mitophagy.

S1761

Suprofen

Suprofen is a dual COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor, used as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic.

S1713

Piroxicam

Piroxicam is a non-selective COX inhibitor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid and osteoarthritis.

S1328

Etodolac

Etodolac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and a COX inhibitor, used for the treatment of inflammation and pain.

S1645

Ketoprofen

Ketoprofen is a dual COX1/2 inhibitor, used as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug to treat arthritis-related inflammatory pains.

S1903

Diclofenac Sodium

Diclofenac Sodium is a non-selective COX inhibitor with IC50 of 0.5 μg/ml and 0.5 μg/ml for COX-1 and -2 in intact cells, respectively, used as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) to relieve pain and reduce swelling in flammation.

S1518

Ibuprofen Lysine

Ibuprofen Lysine is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

S2047

Lornoxicam

Lornoxicam is a non-steroidal COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor, used as an anti-inflammatory drug to treat pain, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.

S1646

Ketorolac

Ketorolac is a non-selective COX inhibitor of COX-1 and COX-2 with IC50 of 1.23 μM and 3.50 μM, respectively.

S1626

Naproxen Sodium

Naproxen Sodium is a COX inhibitor for COX-1 and COX-2 with IC50 of 8.7 μM and 5.2 μM, respectively.

S1576

Sulfasalazine

Sulfasalazine is a sulfa derivative of mesalazine, used as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Sulfasalazine is a potent and specific inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), TGF-β and COX-2. Sulfasalazine induces ferroptosis, apoptosis and autophagy.

S2903

Lumiracoxib

Lumiracoxib is a novel, selective COX-2 inhibitor with Ki of 0.06 μM. It also inhibits COX1 with Ki of 3 μM.

S2531

Asaraldehyde

Asaraldehyde is a natural COX-2 inhibitor, exhibiting 17-fold selectivity over COX-1.

S1960

Pranoprofen

Pranoprofen is a non-steroidal COX inhibitor, used as an anti-inflammatory drug in ophthalmology.

S3008

Zaltoprofen

Zaltoprofen is an inhibitor of COX-1 and COX-2 for treatment of arthritis.

S2602

Acemetacin

Acemetacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and a glycolic acid ester of indometacin that is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor.

S1959

Tolfenamic Acid

Tolfenamic Acid is a COX-2 inhibitor with IC50 of 0.2 μM.

S4049

Valdecoxib

Valdecoxib is a potent and selective inhibitor of COX-2 with IC50 of 5 nM.

S2577

Phenacetin

Phenacetin is a non-opioid analgesic without anti-inflammatory properties.

S2040

Nimesulide

Nimesulide is a relatively COX-2 selective inhibitor with IC50 of 26 μM.

S4149

Amfenac Sodium Monohydrate

Amfenac Sodium monohydrate is a non-steroidal analgesic anti-inflammatory drug with acetic acid moiety. The IC50 values for COX1 and COX2 is 250 nM and 150 nM, respectively.

S4248

Bromfenac Sodium

Bromfenac Sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which has anti-inflammatory activity and may block prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting cyclooxygenase 1 and 2.

S4051

Nabumetone

Nabumetone is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and its active metabolite inhibits the COX.

S3018

Niflumic acid

Niflumic acid is an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 used for joint and muscular pain.

S3173

Antipyrine

Antipyrine is an analgesic and antipyretic agent; selective COX-3 inhibitor.

S3200

Triflusal

Triflusal irreversibly inhibits the production of thromboxane-B2 in platelets by acetylating cycloxygenase-1.

S4011

Ampiroxicam

Ampiroxicam is a nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor uesd as anti-inflammatory drug.

S9208

Ginsenoside Rb3

Ginsenoside Rb3, extracted from the plant Panax ginseng, plays important roles in cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Ginsenoside Rb3 (0.1-10 μM) is tested for inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)-induced nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) luciferase reporter activity using a human kidney 293T cell-based assay. Ginsenoside Rb3 shows the significant activity with an IC50 of 8.2 μM. Ginsenoside Rb3 also inhibits the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) messenger Ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in a dose-dependent manner after HepG2 cells have been treated with TNF-α (10 ng/mL).

S5177

Naproxen

Naproxen is an anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. It is a nonselective inhibitor of COX-1 and COX-2.

S5418

Parecoxib Sodium

Parecoxib Sodium is a water-soluble, injectable sodium salt form of parecoxib, which is a potent and selective inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2).

S3816

Dehydroevodiamine

Dehydroevodiamine, a constituent of Evodia rutaecarpa, has various biological effects such as hypotensive, negative chronotropic, ion channel depressant, inhibition of nitric oxide production and cerebral blood flow enhancing activities. Dehydroevodiamine inhibits LPS-induced iNOS, COX-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) expression in murine macrophage cells.

S8433

NS-398 (NS398)

NS-398 is a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The IC50 values for human recombinant COX-1 and -2 are 75 and 1.77 μM, respectively.

S4032

Bismuth Subsalicylate

Bismuth Subsalicylate is the active ingredient in Pepto-Bismol and inhibits prostaglandin G/H Synthase 1/2.

S5698

Ketorolac tromethamine salt

Ketorolac tromethamine is a synthetic pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative with anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties. It is a non-selective COX inhibitor with IC50s of 20 nM for both COX-1 and COX-2.

S4628

(+/-)-Sulfinpyrazone

Sulfinpyrazone is one of the most studied platelet COX inhibitors, also a uricosuric agent that competitively inhibits uric acid reabsorption in kidney proximal tubules.

S4136

Carprofen

Carprofen inhibits canine COX2 with IC50 of 30 nM.

S3063

Diclofenac Diethylamine

Diclofenac diethylamine is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug taken to reduce inflammation and as an analgesic reducing pain in certain conditions. Diclofenac exerts its action via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with relative equipotency.

S3974

(+)-Catechin hydrate

Catechins are a plant derived polyphenolic anti-oxidants with phytotoxic properties. (+)-Catechin hydrate is a frequent component of traditional herbal remedies, such as Uncaria rhynchophylla. (+)-Catechin hydrate inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) with an IC50 of 1.4 μM.

S4656

Parecoxib

Parecoxib is a selective COX2 inhibitor.

S4609

Diflunisal

Diflunisal is a difluorophenyl derivate of salicylic acid and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The mechanism of action of diflunisal is as a Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor.

S4176

Trometamol

Trometamol is a proton acceptor used to treat acidemia. It inhibits both isoforms of cyclooxygenases (COX1 and COX2), thereby blocking the conversion of arachidonic acid to pro-inflammatory pro-prostaglandins.

S5520

Phenidone

Phenidone, a dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX), is an organic compound that is primarily used as a photographic developer.

S9029

Prim-o-glucosylcimifugin

Prim-O-glucosylcimifugin is a major constituent in Radix Saposhnikovia that has been long used for the treatment of pyrexia, rheumatism, and cancer in traditional Chinese medicine. It shows potential anticancer activity. Prim-O-glucosylcimifugin downregulates the mRNA and protein expression inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner.

S3931

Ginsenoside Rd

Ginsenoside Rd, a minor ginseng saponin, has several pharmacological activities such as immunosuppressive activity, anti-inflammatory activity, immunological adjuvant, anti-cancer activity and wound-healing activity. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits TNFα-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity with an IC50 of 12.05±0.82 μM in HepG2 cells. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits expression of COX-2 and iNOS mRNA. Ginsenoside Rd also inhibits Ca2+ influx. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits CYP2D6, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2C9, with IC50s of 58.0±4.5 μM, 78.4±5.3 μM, 81.7±2.6 μM, and 85.1±9.1 μM, respectively.

S5019

Indobufen

Indobufen is a reversible platelet aggregation inhibitor. Indobufen is a reversible inhibitor of platelet cyclooxygenase (Cox) activity and suppresses thromboxane synthesis.

S4078

Mefenamic Acid

Mefenamic Acid is a competitive inhibitor of COX-1 and COX-2.

S4651

Etoricoxib

Etoricoxib is a new COX-2 selective inhibitor with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, and potential antineoplastic properties.

S9386

Polygalacic acid

Polygalacic acid is the triterpenoid tetrahydroxyacid isolated from Polygala paenea L.. Polygalacic acid (0-100 μM; 24 hours) significantly decreases the mRNAexpressions of MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-13 and COX-2, which are significantly increased by IL-1β, in a dose-dependent manner.

S4686

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin with potent antioxidant properties. It is a potent peroxyl radical scavenger and inhibits noncompetitively cyclooxygenase activity in many tissues, also inhibits angiogenesis and tumor dormancy through suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene transcription.

S6073

Diclofenac acid

Diclofenac acid is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties, and has been shown to be effective in treating a variety of acute and chronic pain and inflammatory conditions. It inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with relative equipotency.

S4765

Syringaldehyde

Syringaldehyde is an organic compound that occurs naturally in trace amounts. It possesses worthy bioactive properties and is, therefore, used in pharmaceuticals, food, cosmetics, textiles, pulp and paper industries, and even in biological control applications. Syringaldehyde is a polyphenolic compound belonging to the group of flavonoids and is found in different plant species like Manihot esculenta and Magnolia officinalis. Syringaldehyde moderately inhibits COX-2 activity with an IC50 of 3.5 μg/mL[2]. Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities.

S5010

Indometacin Sodium

Indomethacin Sodium is the sodium salt of indomethacin, which is a non-selective, reversible, and competitive inhibitor of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 with anti-inflammatory, analgesic-antipyretic and tocolytic effects.

S4230

Oxaprozin

Oxaprozin is a non-narcotic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to relieve the inflammation, swelling, stiffness, and joint pain associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

S5595

3-Carene

3-Carene is a bicyclic monoterpene in essential oils extracted from pine trees. 3-Carene have potent pharmacological effects on COX-2 overexpression and LPS-induced migration of Raw264.7 macrophages. 3‐carene is shown to significantly stimulate the activity and expression of alkaline phosphatase, an early phase marker of osteoblastic differentiation.

S2349

Rutaecarpine

Rutaecarpine is an indolopyridoquinazolinone alkaloid isolated from Evodia rutaecarpa and related herbs; a new class of COX-2 inhibitor.

S2351

Salicin

Salicin is a phenol β-glycosid produced from willow bark that shows anti-inflammatory effects. It is a natural, non-selective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor.

S4526

Fenbufen

Fenbufen is an orally active phenylalkanoic derivative with anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity. It is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

S3899

Hederagenin

Hederagenin is a highly water insoluble triterpenoid compound that can be found in various plants including Hedera helix and Chenopodium quinoa. It exhibits a variety of biological activities, including potent antitumor properties both in vitro and in vivo.

S5551

6-Paradol

6-Paradol is a minor constituent of ginger, mainly formed from 6-gingerol via 6-shogaol, and exhibits a variety of biological activities including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative activities. Paradol is an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2.

S4539

Salicylic acid

Salicylic acid is a beta hydroxy acid that occurs as a natural compound in plants which is an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis and cyclooxygenase activity.

S9149

Benzoylpaeoniflorin

Benzoylpaeoniflorin, a natural product isolated from Chinese paeony root, could inhibit COX-1 and COX-2 in vitro.

S6457

Flurbiprofen Axetil

Flurbiprofen Axetil is one of the commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that nonselectively inhibits cyclooxygenase.

S4509

4-Aminoantipyrine

4-Aminoantipyrine(Ampyrone) is a metabolite of aminopyrine with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is used as a reagent for biochemical reactions producing peroxides or phenols.

S3872

Guaiacol

Guaiacol is a phenolic natural product first isolated from Guaiac resin and the oxidation of lignin. It is a precursor to various flavorants, such as eugenoland vanillin. Guaiacol, a phenolic compound isolated from Guaiac resin, inhibits LPS-stimulated COX-2 expression and NF-κB activation. Anti-inflammatory activity.

S5309

Propyphenazone (4-Isopropylantipyrine)

Propyphenazone(4-Isopropylantipyrine), an analgesic and antipyretic agent, is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor with anti-inflammatory activity.

S7889

Xanthohumol

Xanthohumol, a prenylated chalcone from hop, inhibits COX-1 and COX-2 activity and shows chemopreventive effects. Phase 1.

S2108

Flunixin Meglumin

Flunixin Meglumin is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) used as analgesic agent with anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity.

S5711

Deracoxib

Deracoxib is a COX-2 inhibitor with >48-fold selectivity over COX-1. It also exhibits inhibitory activity against phosphodiesterase (Ki = 3.6 μM against human PDE4D3).

S3925

(-)-Epicatechin gallate

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), also known as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, is the ester of epigallocatechin and gallic acid, and is a type of catechin with anti-inflammatory effects. (-)-Epicatechin gallate (Epicatechin gallate) inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) with an IC50 of 7.5 μM.

S4295

Meclofenamate Sodium

Meclofenamate Sodium is a dual COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor with IC50 of 40 nM and 50 nM, respectively, used in the treatment of joint, muscular pain, arthritis and dysmenorrhea.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S2272New

Indoprofen

Indoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor. Indoprofen prevents muscle wasting in aged mice through activation of PDK1/AKT pathway.Indoprofen selectively increases SMN2-luciferase reporter protein and endogenous SMN protein.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S9190

Oroxin B

Oroxin B, one of flavonoids isolated from traditional Chinese herbal medicine Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent, selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress in malignant lymphoma cells and has antioxidant activity. Oroxin B significantly inhibits proliferation and induce apoptosis, which may be strongly associated with the inhibiting COX-2/VEGF and PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in SMMC-7721 cells, Oroxin B potentially be used as a novel therapeutic agent for liver cancer.COX-2, VEGF, PI3K, and p-AKT expression levels is found to be downregulated, while PTEN was upregulated after Oroxin B treatment.