Dopamine Receptor

Signaling Pathway Map

Research Area

Inhibitory Selectivity

Isoform-specific Inhibitors

Dopamine Receptor Products

New Dopamine Receptor Products
Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S3163

Benztropine mesylate

Benztropine is a dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor with IC50 of 118 nM.

S2456

Chlorpromazine HCl

Chlorpromazine HCl is a dopamine and potassium channel inhibitor with IC50 of 6.1 and 16 μM for inward-rectifying K+ currents and time-independent outward currents.

S5856New

Trifluoperazine

Trifluoperazine is an FDA-approved antipsychotic drug for schizophrenia. It is an inhibitor of calmodulin (CaM) and Dopamine D2 receptor with an IC50 value of 1.2 nM for D2 receptor.

S5796New

Vanoxerine dihydrochloride

Vanoxerine is a potent and selective inhibitor of the presynaptic dopamine uptake complex.

S2452

Amfebutamone (Bupropion) HCl

Amfebutamone (Bupropion) HCl is a selective norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor with IC50 of 6.5 and 3.4 μM for the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine, respectively.

S3201

Trifluoperazine 2HCl

Trifluoperazine is a dopamine D2 receptor inhibitor with IC50 of 1.1 nM.

S2461

Domperidone

Domperidone is an oral dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, used to treat nausea and vomiting.

S4569

Fluphenazine dihydrochloride

Fluphenazine dihydrochloride is a phenothiazine-class D1DR and D2DR inhibitor. It also inhibits Histamine H1 Receptor.

S1642

Methyldopa

Methyldopa (Aldomet) is a DOPA decarboxylase competitive inhibitor with an ED50 of 21.8 mg/kg.

S3189

Ropinirole HCl

Ropinirole a selective dopamine D2 receptors agonist with Ki of 29 nM.

S2493

Olanzapine

Olanzapine is a high affinity for 5-HT2 serotonin and D2 dopamine receptor antagonist.

S1763

Quetiapine Fumarate

Quetiapine Fumarate is an atypical antipsychotic used in the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar I mania, bipolar II depression, bipolar I depression and shows affinity for various neurotransmitter receptors including serotonin, dopamine, histamine, and adrenergic receptors.

S1444

Ziprasidone HCl

Ziprasidone HCl is a novel and potent dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) receptor antagonist, used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

S6455New

Clebopride (malate)

Clebopride is a dopamine antagonist drug and is used to treat functional gastrointestinal disorder such as nausea or vomiting.

S5862New

Metoclopramide

Metoclopramide is a dopamine antagonist used for the treatment of nausea and vomiting.

S5565New

Triflupromazine hydrochloride

Triflupromazine hydrochloride is an antipsychotic medication of the phenothiazine class.

S9509New

Tiapride Hydrochloride

Tiapride is a drug that selectively blocks D2 and D3 dopamine receptors in the brain and is used to treat a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

S5399New

Chlorprothixene hydrochloride

Chlorprothixene HCl is the hydrochloride salt form of chlorprothixene, a typical antipsychotic drug of the thioxanthene (tricyclic) class. It exerts strong blocking effects by blocking the 5-HT2 D1, D2, D3, histamine H1, muscarinic and alpha1 adrenergic receptors.

S5714New

lurasidone

Lurasidone is a second-generation antipsychotic agent that exhibits full antagonism at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors with binding affinities Ki = 1 nM and Ki = 0.5 nM, respectively. It also has high affinity for serotonin 5-HT7 receptors (Ki = 0.5 nM), partial agonist activity at 5-HT1A receptors (Ki = 6.4 nM) and lacks affinity for histamine H1 and muscarinic M1 receptors.

S5624New

Paliperidone Palmitate

Paliperidone Palmitate is a palmitate ester of paliperidone, which is a dopamine antagonist and 5-HT2A antagonist of the atypical antipsychotic class.

S5559New

Tetrahydropalmatine

Tetrahydropalmatine, a plant alkaloid used as an ingredient in dietary supplement products, is a potent and selective D1 receptor antagonist.

S5153New

Tetrahydroberberine

Tetrahydroberberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid with micromolar affinity for dopamine D2 (antagonist, pKi = 6.08) and 5-HT1A (agonist, pKi = 5.38) receptors but moderate to no affinity for other relevant serotonin receptors.

S5428New

Promazine hydrochloride

Promazine is an antagonist at types 1, 2, and 4 dopamine receptors, 5-HT receptor types 2A and 2C, muscarinic receptors 1 through 5, alpha(1)-receptors, and histamine H1-receptors with antipsychotic effects.

S5481New

Molindone hydrochloride

Molindone hydrochloride is the hydrochloride salt form of molindone, a conventional antipsychotic used in the therapy of schizophrenia. It is a dopamine D2/D5 receptor antagonist.

S5324New

Oxidopamine (hydrobromide)

Oxidopamine is a neurotoxic synthetic organic compound that acts as an antagonist of the neurotransmitter dopamine with potential antineoplastic activity.

S1280

Amisulpride

Amisulpride is an atypical antipsychotic used to treat psychosis in schizophrenia and episodes of mania in bipolar disorder.

S1724

Paliperidone

Paliperidone, the main active metabolite of Risperidone, is a potent serotonin-2A and dopamine-2 receptor antagonist, used in the treatment of schizophrenia.

S1920

Haloperidol

Haloperidol (Haldol) is an antipsychotic and butyrophenone.

S1771

Chlorprothixene

Chlorprothixene has strong binding affinities to dopamine and histamine receptors, such as D1, D2, D3, D5, H1, 5-HT2, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7, with Ki of 18 nM, 2.96 nM, 4.56 nM, 9 nM, 3.75 nM, 9.4 nM, 3 nM and 5.6 nM, respectively.

S4251

Phenothiazine

Phenothiazine is a dopamine-2 (D2) receptor antagonist therefore decreases the effect of dopamine in the brain.

S4096

Droperidol

Droperidol is a potent antagonist of dopamine subtype 2 receptors in the limbic system.

S3044

Lurasidone HCl

Lurasidone is an atypical antipsychotic, inhibits Dopamine D2, 5-HT2A, 5-HT7, 5-HT1A and noradrenaline α2C with IC50 of 1.68 nM, 2.03 nM, 0.495 nM, 6.75 nM and 10.8 nM, respectively.

S2104

Levosulpiride

Levosulpiride is a selective antagonist for D2 dopamine receptors used as an antipsychotic and prokinetic agent.

S4086

Loxapine Succinate

Loxapine Succinate is a D2DR and D4DR inhibitor, serotonergic receptor antagonist and also a dibenzoxazepine anti-psychotic agent.

S4731

Perphenazine

Perphenazine is a phenothiazine derivative and a dopamine antagonist with antiemetic and antipsychotic properties.

S4889

Perospirone hydrochloride

Perospirone is an atypical or second-generation antipsychotic of the azapirone family that antagonizes serotonin 5HT2A receptors and dopamine D2 receptors. It also displays affinity towards 5HT1A receptors as a partial agonist.

S4151

Penfluridol

Penfluridol is a highly potent, first generation diphenylbutylpiperidine antipsychotic.

S2437

Rotundine

Rotundine (L-tetrahydropalmatine, L-THP) is a selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonist with IC50 of 166 nM.

S4631

Prochlorperazine dimaleate salt

Prochlorperazine dimaleate is a dopamine (D2) receptor antagonist.

S4257

Alizapride HCl

Alizapride HCl is a dopamine receptor antagonist used for the theropy of nausea and vomiting.

S4655

Sulpiride

Sulpiride is a dopamine D2-receptor antagonist. It has been used therapeutically as an antidepressant, antipsychotic, and as a digestive aid.

S5034

Melitracen hydrochloride

Melitracen hydrochloride is a potential dopamine D1/2 receptor antagonist which has antidepressant properties.

S1789

Tetrabenazine (Xenazine)

Tetrabenazine(Nitoman, Xenazine) acts primarily as a reversible high-affinity inhibitor of mono-amine uptake into granular vesicles of presynaptic neurons by binding selectively to VMAT-2; Also blocks dopamine D2 receptors, but this affinity is 1,000-fold lower than its affinity for VMAT-2.

S4219

Azaperone

Azaperone crosses the blood-brain barrier and binds to both DI and D2 receptors, being an antagonist of Dopamine receptors with sedative and antiemetic effects, which is used mainly as a tranquilizer in veterinary medicine.

S4289

Metoclopramide HCl

Metoclopramide HCl is a selective dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, used for the treatment of nausea and vomiting.

S5849New

Cariprazine HCl

Cariprazine, a novel second-generation antipsychotic, is a D3-preferring dopamine D2/D3 receptor partial agonist.

S5842New

Cabergoline

Cabergoline, an ergot derivative, is a long-acting dopamine agonist and prolactin inhibitor.

S1726

Levodopa

Levodopa is the precursor to the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline), used to treat Parkinson's symptoms.

S2451

Amantadine HCl

Amantadine HCl is used to treat or prevent infections of the respiratory tract caused by a certain virus.

S2011

Pramipexole 2HCl Monohydrate

Pramipexole 2HCl Monohydrateis a novel non-ergoline dopamine (DA) agonist, used to treat Parkinson's disease.

S2460

Pramipexole

Pramipexole is a partial/full D2S, D2L, D3, D4 receptor agonist with a Ki of 3.9, 2.2, 0.5 and 5.1 nM for D2S, D2L, D3, D4 receptor, respectively.

S2529

Dopamine HCl

Dopamine HCl is a catecholamine neurotransmitter present in a wide variety of animals,And a dopamine D1-5 receptors agonist.

S4000

Pergolide Mesylate

Pergolide Mesylate is an antiparkinsonian agent which functions as a dopaminergic agonist.

S3664

Flupenthixol dihydrochloride

Flupentixol, an antipsychotic neuroleptic drug, is a powerful antagonist of both D1 and D2 dopamine receptors and also an alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist.

S4618

Fenoldopam mesylate

Fenoldopam is a selective dopamine-1 receptor (DA1) agonist with natriuretic/diuretic properties. It lowers blood pressure through arteriolar vasodilation.

S7993

SKF38393 HCl

SKF38393 HCl is a selective dopamine D1/D5 receptor agonist.

S4639

Brexpiprazole

Brexpiprazole is a novel D2 dopamine and serotonin 1A partial agonist, called serotonin-dopamine activity modulator (SDAM), and a potent antagonist of serotonin 2A receptors, noradrenergic alpha 1B and 2C receptors with Ki values of 0.3, 0.12, 0.47, 0.17 and 0.59 nM for D2L, 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, α1B receptors and α2C receptors respectivey.

S3656

Piribedil

Piribedil is a relatively selective dopamine (D2/D3) agonist with moderate antidepressant activity. It also has α2-adrenergic (α2A/α2C) antagonist properties.

S2168

PD128907 HCl

PD 128907 HCl is a potent and selective dopamine D3 receptor agonist, with EC50 of 0.64 nM, exhibits 53-fold selectivity over dopamine D2 receptor.

S4274

Rotigotine

Rotigotine is a dopamine receptor agonist, used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome.

S5066

Pramipexole dihydrochloride

Pramipexole dihydrochloride is a dopamine agonist of the non-ergoline class indicated for treating Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) with Ki values of 3.9 nM, 2.2 nM, 0.5 nM and 5.1 nM for D2S receptor, D2L receptor, D3 receptor and D4 receptor.

S4732

MPTP hydrochloride

MPTP hydrochloride is a dopaminergic neurotoxin and cause selective destruction of dopaminergic neurons in animal models of parkinsonism.

S8097

C-DIM12

C-DIM12 is Nurr1 activator that stimulates Nurr1 mediated apoptosis axis in bladder cancer cells and tumors and inhibits NF-κB–dependent gene expression in glial cells.

S3188

(+,-)-Octopamine HCl

Octopamine (OA), a biogenic monoamine structurally related to noradrenaline, acts as a neurohormone, a neuromodulator and a neurotransmitter in invertebrates.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S3163

Benztropine mesylate

Benztropine is a dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor with IC50 of 118 nM.

S2456

Chlorpromazine HCl

Chlorpromazine HCl is a dopamine and potassium channel inhibitor with IC50 of 6.1 and 16 μM for inward-rectifying K+ currents and time-independent outward currents.

S5856New

Trifluoperazine

Trifluoperazine is an FDA-approved antipsychotic drug for schizophrenia. It is an inhibitor of calmodulin (CaM) and Dopamine D2 receptor with an IC50 value of 1.2 nM for D2 receptor.

S5796New

Vanoxerine dihydrochloride

Vanoxerine is a potent and selective inhibitor of the presynaptic dopamine uptake complex.

S2452

Amfebutamone (Bupropion) HCl

Amfebutamone (Bupropion) HCl is a selective norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor with IC50 of 6.5 and 3.4 μM for the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine, respectively.

S3201

Trifluoperazine 2HCl

Trifluoperazine is a dopamine D2 receptor inhibitor with IC50 of 1.1 nM.

S2461

Domperidone

Domperidone is an oral dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, used to treat nausea and vomiting.

S4569

Fluphenazine dihydrochloride

Fluphenazine dihydrochloride is a phenothiazine-class D1DR and D2DR inhibitor. It also inhibits Histamine H1 Receptor.

S1642

Methyldopa

Methyldopa (Aldomet) is a DOPA decarboxylase competitive inhibitor with an ED50 of 21.8 mg/kg.

S3189

Ropinirole HCl

Ropinirole a selective dopamine D2 receptors agonist with Ki of 29 nM.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S2493

Olanzapine

Olanzapine is a high affinity for 5-HT2 serotonin and D2 dopamine receptor antagonist.

S1763

Quetiapine Fumarate

Quetiapine Fumarate is an atypical antipsychotic used in the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar I mania, bipolar II depression, bipolar I depression and shows affinity for various neurotransmitter receptors including serotonin, dopamine, histamine, and adrenergic receptors.

S1444

Ziprasidone HCl

Ziprasidone HCl is a novel and potent dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) receptor antagonist, used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

S6455New

Clebopride (malate)

Clebopride is a dopamine antagonist drug and is used to treat functional gastrointestinal disorder such as nausea or vomiting.

S5862New

Metoclopramide

Metoclopramide is a dopamine antagonist used for the treatment of nausea and vomiting.

S5565New

Triflupromazine hydrochloride

Triflupromazine hydrochloride is an antipsychotic medication of the phenothiazine class.

S9509New

Tiapride Hydrochloride

Tiapride is a drug that selectively blocks D2 and D3 dopamine receptors in the brain and is used to treat a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

S5399New

Chlorprothixene hydrochloride

Chlorprothixene HCl is the hydrochloride salt form of chlorprothixene, a typical antipsychotic drug of the thioxanthene (tricyclic) class. It exerts strong blocking effects by blocking the 5-HT2 D1, D2, D3, histamine H1, muscarinic and alpha1 adrenergic receptors.

S5714New

lurasidone

Lurasidone is a second-generation antipsychotic agent that exhibits full antagonism at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors with binding affinities Ki = 1 nM and Ki = 0.5 nM, respectively. It also has high affinity for serotonin 5-HT7 receptors (Ki = 0.5 nM), partial agonist activity at 5-HT1A receptors (Ki = 6.4 nM) and lacks affinity for histamine H1 and muscarinic M1 receptors.

S5624New

Paliperidone Palmitate

Paliperidone Palmitate is a palmitate ester of paliperidone, which is a dopamine antagonist and 5-HT2A antagonist of the atypical antipsychotic class.

S5559New

Tetrahydropalmatine

Tetrahydropalmatine, a plant alkaloid used as an ingredient in dietary supplement products, is a potent and selective D1 receptor antagonist.

S5153New

Tetrahydroberberine

Tetrahydroberberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid with micromolar affinity for dopamine D2 (antagonist, pKi = 6.08) and 5-HT1A (agonist, pKi = 5.38) receptors but moderate to no affinity for other relevant serotonin receptors.

S5428New

Promazine hydrochloride

Promazine is an antagonist at types 1, 2, and 4 dopamine receptors, 5-HT receptor types 2A and 2C, muscarinic receptors 1 through 5, alpha(1)-receptors, and histamine H1-receptors with antipsychotic effects.

S5481New

Molindone hydrochloride

Molindone hydrochloride is the hydrochloride salt form of molindone, a conventional antipsychotic used in the therapy of schizophrenia. It is a dopamine D2/D5 receptor antagonist.

S5324New

Oxidopamine (hydrobromide)

Oxidopamine is a neurotoxic synthetic organic compound that acts as an antagonist of the neurotransmitter dopamine with potential antineoplastic activity.

S1280

Amisulpride

Amisulpride is an atypical antipsychotic used to treat psychosis in schizophrenia and episodes of mania in bipolar disorder.

S1724

Paliperidone

Paliperidone, the main active metabolite of Risperidone, is a potent serotonin-2A and dopamine-2 receptor antagonist, used in the treatment of schizophrenia.

S1920

Haloperidol

Haloperidol (Haldol) is an antipsychotic and butyrophenone.

S1771

Chlorprothixene

Chlorprothixene has strong binding affinities to dopamine and histamine receptors, such as D1, D2, D3, D5, H1, 5-HT2, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7, with Ki of 18 nM, 2.96 nM, 4.56 nM, 9 nM, 3.75 nM, 9.4 nM, 3 nM and 5.6 nM, respectively.

S4251

Phenothiazine

Phenothiazine is a dopamine-2 (D2) receptor antagonist therefore decreases the effect of dopamine in the brain.

S4096

Droperidol

Droperidol is a potent antagonist of dopamine subtype 2 receptors in the limbic system.

S3044

Lurasidone HCl

Lurasidone is an atypical antipsychotic, inhibits Dopamine D2, 5-HT2A, 5-HT7, 5-HT1A and noradrenaline α2C with IC50 of 1.68 nM, 2.03 nM, 0.495 nM, 6.75 nM and 10.8 nM, respectively.

S2104

Levosulpiride

Levosulpiride is a selective antagonist for D2 dopamine receptors used as an antipsychotic and prokinetic agent.

S4086

Loxapine Succinate

Loxapine Succinate is a D2DR and D4DR inhibitor, serotonergic receptor antagonist and also a dibenzoxazepine anti-psychotic agent.

S4731

Perphenazine

Perphenazine is a phenothiazine derivative and a dopamine antagonist with antiemetic and antipsychotic properties.

S4889

Perospirone hydrochloride

Perospirone is an atypical or second-generation antipsychotic of the azapirone family that antagonizes serotonin 5HT2A receptors and dopamine D2 receptors. It also displays affinity towards 5HT1A receptors as a partial agonist.

S4151

Penfluridol

Penfluridol is a highly potent, first generation diphenylbutylpiperidine antipsychotic.

S2437

Rotundine

Rotundine (L-tetrahydropalmatine, L-THP) is a selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonist with IC50 of 166 nM.

S4631

Prochlorperazine dimaleate salt

Prochlorperazine dimaleate is a dopamine (D2) receptor antagonist.

S4257

Alizapride HCl

Alizapride HCl is a dopamine receptor antagonist used for the theropy of nausea and vomiting.

S4655

Sulpiride

Sulpiride is a dopamine D2-receptor antagonist. It has been used therapeutically as an antidepressant, antipsychotic, and as a digestive aid.

S5034

Melitracen hydrochloride

Melitracen hydrochloride is a potential dopamine D1/2 receptor antagonist which has antidepressant properties.

S1789

Tetrabenazine (Xenazine)

Tetrabenazine(Nitoman, Xenazine) acts primarily as a reversible high-affinity inhibitor of mono-amine uptake into granular vesicles of presynaptic neurons by binding selectively to VMAT-2; Also blocks dopamine D2 receptors, but this affinity is 1,000-fold lower than its affinity for VMAT-2.

S4219

Azaperone

Azaperone crosses the blood-brain barrier and binds to both DI and D2 receptors, being an antagonist of Dopamine receptors with sedative and antiemetic effects, which is used mainly as a tranquilizer in veterinary medicine.

S4289

Metoclopramide HCl

Metoclopramide HCl is a selective dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, used for the treatment of nausea and vomiting.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S5849New

Cariprazine HCl

Cariprazine, a novel second-generation antipsychotic, is a D3-preferring dopamine D2/D3 receptor partial agonist.

S5842New

Cabergoline

Cabergoline, an ergot derivative, is a long-acting dopamine agonist and prolactin inhibitor.

S1726

Levodopa

Levodopa is the precursor to the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline), used to treat Parkinson's symptoms.

S2451

Amantadine HCl

Amantadine HCl is used to treat or prevent infections of the respiratory tract caused by a certain virus.

S2011

Pramipexole 2HCl Monohydrate

Pramipexole 2HCl Monohydrateis a novel non-ergoline dopamine (DA) agonist, used to treat Parkinson's disease.

S2460

Pramipexole

Pramipexole is a partial/full D2S, D2L, D3, D4 receptor agonist with a Ki of 3.9, 2.2, 0.5 and 5.1 nM for D2S, D2L, D3, D4 receptor, respectively.

S2529

Dopamine HCl

Dopamine HCl is a catecholamine neurotransmitter present in a wide variety of animals,And a dopamine D1-5 receptors agonist.

S4000

Pergolide Mesylate

Pergolide Mesylate is an antiparkinsonian agent which functions as a dopaminergic agonist.

S3664

Flupenthixol dihydrochloride

Flupentixol, an antipsychotic neuroleptic drug, is a powerful antagonist of both D1 and D2 dopamine receptors and also an alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist.

S4618

Fenoldopam mesylate

Fenoldopam is a selective dopamine-1 receptor (DA1) agonist with natriuretic/diuretic properties. It lowers blood pressure through arteriolar vasodilation.

S7993

SKF38393 HCl

SKF38393 HCl is a selective dopamine D1/D5 receptor agonist.

S4639

Brexpiprazole

Brexpiprazole is a novel D2 dopamine and serotonin 1A partial agonist, called serotonin-dopamine activity modulator (SDAM), and a potent antagonist of serotonin 2A receptors, noradrenergic alpha 1B and 2C receptors with Ki values of 0.3, 0.12, 0.47, 0.17 and 0.59 nM for D2L, 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, α1B receptors and α2C receptors respectivey.

S3656

Piribedil

Piribedil is a relatively selective dopamine (D2/D3) agonist with moderate antidepressant activity. It also has α2-adrenergic (α2A/α2C) antagonist properties.

S2168

PD128907 HCl

PD 128907 HCl is a potent and selective dopamine D3 receptor agonist, with EC50 of 0.64 nM, exhibits 53-fold selectivity over dopamine D2 receptor.

S4274

Rotigotine

Rotigotine is a dopamine receptor agonist, used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome.

S5066

Pramipexole dihydrochloride

Pramipexole dihydrochloride is a dopamine agonist of the non-ergoline class indicated for treating Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) with Ki values of 3.9 nM, 2.2 nM, 0.5 nM and 5.1 nM for D2S receptor, D2L receptor, D3 receptor and D4 receptor.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S4732

MPTP hydrochloride

MPTP hydrochloride is a dopaminergic neurotoxin and cause selective destruction of dopaminergic neurons in animal models of parkinsonism.

S8097

C-DIM12

C-DIM12 is Nurr1 activator that stimulates Nurr1 mediated apoptosis axis in bladder cancer cells and tumors and inhibits NF-κB–dependent gene expression in glial cells.

S3188

(+,-)-Octopamine HCl

Octopamine (OA), a biogenic monoamine structurally related to noradrenaline, acts as a neurohormone, a neuromodulator and a neurotransmitter in invertebrates.