For research use only.
Molecular Weight(MW): 197.19
Levodopa is the precursor to the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline), used to treat Parkinson's symptoms.
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(A) A focused screening of Aβ generation in response to levodopa, piribedil, bromocriptine or carbidopa at indicated concentrations in SK-N-SH cells. Data are mean ± s.e.m., n = 3-4. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001 versus the control of each group.
PLoS ONE, 12(3), e0173240. Levodopa purchased from Selleck.
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Choose Selective Dopamine Receptor Inhibitors
|Description||Levodopa is the precursor to the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline), used to treat Parkinson's symptoms.|
Levodopa produces at 25-200 μM concentrations a dose-dependent reduction of 3H-DA uptake in foetal rat midbrain cultures. Levodopa results in a decrease in the number of viable cells and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive neurones, plus disruption of the overall neuritic network.  Levodopa induces dyskinesia in the absence of dopamine by excessive inhibition of neurons of the putamen-globus pallidus (GPe) projection and subsequent disinhibition of the globus pallidus (GPe). Levodopa results in a decrease in cytochrome oxidase messenger RNA expression in the globus pallidus (GPi). 
|In vivo||Levodopa elicits the development of a variety of abnormal movements in monkeys with parkinsonism induced by the neurotoxin MPTP. Levodopa administrations result in an ectopic induction of the dopamine D3receptor expression in the CdPu in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.  Levodopa (50 mg/kg) increases anandamide concentrations throughout thebasal ganglia via activation of dopamine D1/D2 receptors in intact rats. Levodopa produces increasingly severe oro-lingual involuntary movements which are attenuated by the cannabinoid agonist R(+)-WIN55,212-2 (1 mg/kg) in lesioned rats.  Levodopa administration reverses the up-regulation of D2 dopamine receptors seen in severely lesioned rats provided evidence that Levodopa reaches a biologically active concentration at the basal ganglia. |
-  Mena MA, et al. Neuroreport, 1993, 4(4), 438-440.
-  Garcia-Effron G, et al. J Antimicrob Chemother, 2004, 53(6), 1086-1089.
-  Bordet R, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1997, 94(7), 3363-3367.
* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.
In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)
|Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)|
|Dosage||mg/kg||Average weight of animals||g||Dosing volume per animal||ul||Number of animals|
|Step 2: Enter the in vivo formulation (Different batches have different solubility ratios, please contact Selleck to provide you with the correct ratio)|
|% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O|
Working concentration： mg/ml；
Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: ： mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO (Master liquid concentration mg/mL，)
Method for preparing in vivo formulation：Take DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300， mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80，mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O，mix and clarify.
1.Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2.Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such as vortex, ultrasound or hot water bath can be used to aid dissolving.
Calculate the mass, volume or concentration required for a solution. The Selleck molarity calculator is based on the following equation:
Mass (mg) = Concentration (mM) × Volume (mL) × Molecular Weight (g/mol)
*When preparing stock solutions, please always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the via label and MSDS / COA (available on product pages).
Calculate the dilution required to prepare a stock solution. The Selleck dilution calculator is based on the following equation:
Concentration (start) x Volume (start) = Concentration (final) x Volume (final)
This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2 ( Input Output )
* When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and MSDS / COA (available online).
Molecular Weight Calculator
Enter the chemical formula of a compound to calculate its molar mass and elemental composition:
Tip: Chemical formula is case sensitive. C10H16N2O2 c10h16n2o2
Instructions to calculate molar mass (molecular weight) of a chemical compound:
To calculate molar mass of a chemical compound, please enter its chemical formula and click 'Calculate'.
Definitions of molecular mass, molecular weight, molar mass and molar weight:
Molecular mass (molecular weight) is the mass of one molecule of a substance and is expressed in the unified atomic mass units (u). (1 u is equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12)
Molar mass (molar weight) is the mass of one mole of a substance and is expressed in g/mol.
Clinical Trial Information
|NCT Number||Recruitment||interventions||Conditions||Sponsor/Collaborators||Start Date||Phases|
|NCT04379778||Not yet recruiting||Other: Aerobic exercise||Parkinson Disease||University of Aarhus||July 2020||Not Applicable|
|NCT04182399||Not yet recruiting||Drug: Zonisamide Capsules||Parkinson Disease||Ain Shams University||April 1 2020||Not Applicable|
|NCT04369430||Recruiting||Drug: AKST4290|Drug: Placebo||Parkinson Disease||Alkahest Inc.||January 16 2020||Phase 2|
|NCT04232969||Recruiting||Drug: Exenatide extended release 2mg (Bydureon)||Parkinson''s Disease||University College London||January 20 2020||Phase 3|
|NCT04305002||Recruiting||Drug: Exenatide|Drug: Placebo||Parkinson Disease||Center for Neurology Stockholm|Karolinska Institutet||January 21 2020||Phase 2|
Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.
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