TGF-beta/Smad

Signaling Pathway Map

Research Area

Inhibitory Selectivity

Isoform-specific Inhibitors

TGF-beta/Smad Products

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S1067

SB431542

SB431542 is a potent and selective inhibitor of ALK5 with IC50 of 94 nM in a cell-free assay, 100-fold more selective for ALK5 than p38 MAPK and other kinases.

S2618

LDN-193189

LDN-193189 (DM3189) is a selective BMP signaling inhibitor, inhibits the ALK1, ALK2, ALK3 and ALK6 with IC50s of 0.8 nM, 0.8 nM, 5.3 nM and 16.7 nM in the kinase assay, respectively. LDN-193189 inhibits the transcriptional activity of the BMP type I receptors ALK2 and ALK3 with IC50s of 5 nM and 30 nM in C2C12 cells, respectively, exhibits 200-fold selectivity for BMP versus TGF-β. For animal testing, the water-soluble S7507 LDN-193189 2HCl is recommended.

S2230

Galunisertib (LY2157299)

Galunisertib (LY2157299) is a potent TGFβ receptor I (TβRI) inhibitor with IC50 of 56 nM in a cell-free assay. Phase 2/3.

S2704

LY2109761

LY2109761 is a novel selective TGF-β receptor type I/II (TβRI/II) dual inhibitor with Ki of 38 nM and 300 nM in a cell-free assay, respectively; shown to negatively affect the phosphorylation of Smad2. LY2109761 blocks autophagy and induces apoptosis.

S1476

SB525334

SB525334 is a potent and selective inhibitor of TGFβ receptor I (ALK5) with IC50 of 14.3 nM in a cell-free assay, 4-fold less potent to ALK4 than ALK5 and inactive to ALK2, 3, and 6.

S2186

SB505124

SB505124 is a selective inhibitor of TGFβR for ALK4, ALK5 with IC50 of 129 nM and 47 nM in cell-free assays, respectively, also inhibits ALK7, but does not inhibit ALK1, 2, 3, or 6.

S7306

Dorsomorphin (Compound C) 2HCl

Dorsomorphin 2HCl (BML-275, Compound C) is a potent, reversible, selective AMPK inhibitor with Ki of 109 nM in cell-free assays, exhibiting no significant inhibition of several structurally related kinases including ZAPK, SYK, PKCθ, PKA, and JAK3. Also inhibits type Ⅰ BMP receptor activity. Dorsomorphin induces autophagy in cancer cell line.

S2907

Pirfenidone (S-7701)

Pirfenidone (S-7701, AMR-69) is an inhibitor for TGF-β production and TGF-β stimulated collagen production, reduces production of TNF-α and IL-1β, and also has anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Pirfenidone attenuates chemokine (CC motif) ligand-2 (CCL2) and CCL12 production with anti-fibrotic activity. Phase 3.

S2750

GW788388

GW788388 is a potent and selective inhibitor of ALK5 with IC50 of 18 nM in a cell-free assay, also inhibits TGF-β type II receptor and activin type II receptor activities, but does not inhibit BMP type II receptor.

S2805

LY364947

LY364947 (HTS 466284) is a potent ATP-competitive inhibitor of TGFβR-I with IC50 of 59 nM in a cell-free assay, shows 7-fold selectivity over TGFβR-II.

S7223

RepSox (E-616452)

RepSox (E-616452, SJN 2511, ALK5 Inhibitor II) is a potent and selective inhibitor of the TGFβR-1/ALK5 with IC50 of 23 nM and 4 nM for ATP binding to ALK5 and ALK5 autophosphorylation in cell-free assays, respectively.

S7507

LDN-193189 2HCl

LDN-193189 (DM3189) 2HCl is a selective BMP signaling inhibitor, inhibits the ALK1, ALK2, ALK3 and ALK6 with IC50s of 0.8 nM, 0.8 nM, 5.3 nM and 16.7 nM in the kinase assay, respectively. LDN-193189 inhibits the transcriptional activity of the BMP type I receptors ALK2 and ALK3 with IC50s of 5 nM and 30 nM in C2C12 cells, respectively, exhibits 200-fold selectivity for BMP versus TGF-β.

S1576

Sulfasalazine (NSC 667219)

Sulfasalazine (NSC 667219, Azulfidine, Salazopyrin, Sulphasalazine) is a sulfa derivative of mesalazine, used as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Sulfasalazine is a potent and specific inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), TGF-β and COX-2. Sulfasalazine induces ferroptosis, apoptosis and autophagy.

S7359

K02288

K02288 is a potent, and selective type I BMP receptor inhibitor with IC50 of 1.1, 1.8, 6.4 nM for ALK2, ALK1 and ALK6, showing weaker inhibition on other ALKs (3, 4, 5) and ActRIIA.

S7624

SD-208

SD-208 is a selective TGF-βRI (ALK5) inhibitor with IC50 of 48 nM, >100-fold selectivity over TGF-βRII.

S7692

A-83-01

A-83-01 is a potent inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptor (ALK5-TD) with IC50 of 12 nM. A-83-01 also inhibits the transcription induced by activin/nodal type I receptor (ALK4-TD) and nodal type I receptor (ALK7-TD) with IC50 of 45 nM and 7.5 nM, respectively.Solutions are best fresh-prepared.

S0752

AUDA

AUDA (compound 43) is a potent inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) with IC50 of 18 nM and 69 nM for the mouse sEH and human sEH, respectively. AUDA has anti-inflammatory activity that reduces the protein expression of MMP-9, IL-1β, TNF-α and TGF-β. AUDA downregulates Smad3 and p38 signaling pathways.

S8700

TP0427736 HCl

TP0427736 is a potent inhibitor of ALK5 kinase activity with an IC50 of 2.72 nM and this effect is 300-fold higher than the inhibitory effect on ALK3 (IC50 = 836 nM for ALK3). It also inhibits Smad2/3 phosphorylation in A549 cells induced by TGF-β1 with an IC50 value of 8.68 nM.

S7627

LDN-214117

LDN-214117 is a potent and selective BMP type I receptor kinase ALK2 inhibitor with IC50 of 24 nM.

S7959

SIS3 HCl

SIS3, a novel specific inhibitor of Smad3, inhibits TGF-β and activin signaling by suppressing Smad3 phosphorylation without affecting the MAPK/p38, ERK, or PI3-kinase signaling pathways.

S2234

BIBF-0775

BIBF-0775 is a selective inhibitor of transforming growth factor β Receptor I (TGFβRI,Alk5) with an IC50 of 34nM.

S8772

LY 3200882

LY 3200882 is a potent, highly selective inhibitor of TGF-β receptor type 1 (TGFβRI). It potently inhibits TGFβ mediated SMAD phosphorylation in vitro in tumor and immune cells and in vivo in subcutaneous tumors in a dose dependent fashion.

S7530

Vactosertib (TEW-7197)

Vactosertib  (TEW-7197, EW-7197) is a highly potent, selective, and orally bioavailable TGF-β receptor ALK4/ALK5 inhibitor with IC50 of 13 nM and 11 nM, respectively. Phase 1.

S7146

DMH1

DMH1 is a selective BMP receptor inhibitor with IC50 of 107.9 nM for ALK2, exhibiting no inhibition on AMPK, ALK5, KDR (VEGFR-2) or PDGFR. DMH1 inhibits autophagy.

S7147

LDN-212854

LDN-212854 (BMP Inhibitor III) is a potent and selective BMP receptor inhibitor with IC50 of 1.3 nM for ALK2, about 2-, 66-, 1641-, and 7135-fold selectivity over ALK1, ALK3, ALK4, and ALK5, respectively.

S7148

ML347

ML347 (LDN-193719) is a selective BMP receptor inhibitor with IC50 of 32 nM for ALK2, >300-fold selectivity over ALK3. Also inhibits ALK1 activity with IC50 of 46 nM.

S8144

Halofuginone

Halofuginone (RU-19110) is the competitively inhibitor of prolyl-tRNA synthetase with Ki of 18.3 nM.It could also down-regulate Smad3 and blocked TGF-β signaling at 10 ng/ml in mammal.

S6713

ITD-1

ITD-1 is a potent TGF-β inhibitor. It does not block the kinase activity of either type I (TGFBR1) or type II (TGFBR2) TGFβ receptors but potently blocks phosphorylation of the effector SMAD2/3 proteins induced by TGFβ2, and only minimally in response to Activin A.

S7840

Dorsomorphin (Compound C)

Dorsomorphin (Compound C, BML-275) is a potent, reversible, selective AMPK inhibitor with Ki of 109 nM in cell-free assays, exhibiting no significant inhibition of several structurally related kinases including ZAPK, SYK, PKCθ, PKA, and JAK3. Dorsomorphin selectively inhibits the BMP type I receptors ALK2, ALK3 and ALK6. Dorsomorphin is used in promoting specific cell differentiation and inducing cancer cell line autophagy. For animal testing, the water-soluble S7306 Dorsomorphin (Compound C) 2HCl is recommended.

S6807

TA-02

TA-02 is a p38 MAPK inhibitor with IC50 of 20 nM. TA-02 especially inhibits TGFBR-2.

S5183

PD 169316

PD 169316 is a potent, selective and cell-permeable p38 MAP kinase inhibitor with IC50 of 89 nM. PD169316 abrogates signaling initiated by both TGFbeta and Activin A. PD169316 shows antiviral activity against Enterovirus71.

S3223New

L-Quebrachitol

L-Quebrachitol (L-QCT), a natural product isolated from many plants, promotes proliferation and cell DNA synthesis. L-Quebrachitol upregulates bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) and regulatory genes associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, while down-regulating the receptor activator of the nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) mRNA level.

S7914

Isoxazole 9 (ISX-9)

Isoxazole 9 (Isx-9) is a synthetic promotor of adult neurogenesis by triggering neuronal differentiation of adult neural stem/precursor cells (NSPCs). Isoxazole 9 (Isx-9) activates multiple pathways including TGF-β induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) signaling, canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling at different stages of cardiac differentiation.

S7658

Kartogenin

Kartogenin (KGN) is an activator of the smad4/smad5 pathway, and promotes the selective differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes.

S0153

SJ000291942

SJ000291942 is a canonical bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) signaling pathway activator.

S0523

SB 4 (Eticovo)

SB 4 (Eticovo) is a potent and selective agonist of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling with EC50 of 74 nM. SB 4 (Eticovo) enhances canonical BMP signaling and activates SMAD-1/5/9 phosphorylation.

S6654

SRI-011381

SRI-011381 is a novel agonist of the TGF-beta signaling pathway for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

S2308

Hesperetin

Hesperetin is a bioflavonoid and, to be more specific, a flavanone.

S8318

Alantolactone

Alantolactone (helenin, helenine, Eupatal), a naturally occurring eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactone (SL), could induce activin/SMAD3 signaling and disrupt Cripto-1/activin receptor type II A interaction.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S1067

SB431542

SB431542 is a potent and selective inhibitor of ALK5 with IC50 of 94 nM in a cell-free assay, 100-fold more selective for ALK5 than p38 MAPK and other kinases.

S2618

LDN-193189

LDN-193189 (DM3189) is a selective BMP signaling inhibitor, inhibits the ALK1, ALK2, ALK3 and ALK6 with IC50s of 0.8 nM, 0.8 nM, 5.3 nM and 16.7 nM in the kinase assay, respectively. LDN-193189 inhibits the transcriptional activity of the BMP type I receptors ALK2 and ALK3 with IC50s of 5 nM and 30 nM in C2C12 cells, respectively, exhibits 200-fold selectivity for BMP versus TGF-β. For animal testing, the water-soluble S7507 LDN-193189 2HCl is recommended.

S2230

Galunisertib (LY2157299)

Galunisertib (LY2157299) is a potent TGFβ receptor I (TβRI) inhibitor with IC50 of 56 nM in a cell-free assay. Phase 2/3.

S2704

LY2109761

LY2109761 is a novel selective TGF-β receptor type I/II (TβRI/II) dual inhibitor with Ki of 38 nM and 300 nM in a cell-free assay, respectively; shown to negatively affect the phosphorylation of Smad2. LY2109761 blocks autophagy and induces apoptosis.

S1476

SB525334

SB525334 is a potent and selective inhibitor of TGFβ receptor I (ALK5) with IC50 of 14.3 nM in a cell-free assay, 4-fold less potent to ALK4 than ALK5 and inactive to ALK2, 3, and 6.

S2186

SB505124

SB505124 is a selective inhibitor of TGFβR for ALK4, ALK5 with IC50 of 129 nM and 47 nM in cell-free assays, respectively, also inhibits ALK7, but does not inhibit ALK1, 2, 3, or 6.

S7306

Dorsomorphin (Compound C) 2HCl

Dorsomorphin 2HCl (BML-275, Compound C) is a potent, reversible, selective AMPK inhibitor with Ki of 109 nM in cell-free assays, exhibiting no significant inhibition of several structurally related kinases including ZAPK, SYK, PKCθ, PKA, and JAK3. Also inhibits type Ⅰ BMP receptor activity. Dorsomorphin induces autophagy in cancer cell line.

S2907

Pirfenidone (S-7701)

Pirfenidone (S-7701, AMR-69) is an inhibitor for TGF-β production and TGF-β stimulated collagen production, reduces production of TNF-α and IL-1β, and also has anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Pirfenidone attenuates chemokine (CC motif) ligand-2 (CCL2) and CCL12 production with anti-fibrotic activity. Phase 3.

S2750

GW788388

GW788388 is a potent and selective inhibitor of ALK5 with IC50 of 18 nM in a cell-free assay, also inhibits TGF-β type II receptor and activin type II receptor activities, but does not inhibit BMP type II receptor.

S2805

LY364947

LY364947 (HTS 466284) is a potent ATP-competitive inhibitor of TGFβR-I with IC50 of 59 nM in a cell-free assay, shows 7-fold selectivity over TGFβR-II.

S7223

RepSox (E-616452)

RepSox (E-616452, SJN 2511, ALK5 Inhibitor II) is a potent and selective inhibitor of the TGFβR-1/ALK5 with IC50 of 23 nM and 4 nM for ATP binding to ALK5 and ALK5 autophosphorylation in cell-free assays, respectively.

S7507

LDN-193189 2HCl

LDN-193189 (DM3189) 2HCl is a selective BMP signaling inhibitor, inhibits the ALK1, ALK2, ALK3 and ALK6 with IC50s of 0.8 nM, 0.8 nM, 5.3 nM and 16.7 nM in the kinase assay, respectively. LDN-193189 inhibits the transcriptional activity of the BMP type I receptors ALK2 and ALK3 with IC50s of 5 nM and 30 nM in C2C12 cells, respectively, exhibits 200-fold selectivity for BMP versus TGF-β.

S1576

Sulfasalazine (NSC 667219)

Sulfasalazine (NSC 667219, Azulfidine, Salazopyrin, Sulphasalazine) is a sulfa derivative of mesalazine, used as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Sulfasalazine is a potent and specific inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), TGF-β and COX-2. Sulfasalazine induces ferroptosis, apoptosis and autophagy.

S7359

K02288

K02288 is a potent, and selective type I BMP receptor inhibitor with IC50 of 1.1, 1.8, 6.4 nM for ALK2, ALK1 and ALK6, showing weaker inhibition on other ALKs (3, 4, 5) and ActRIIA.

S7624

SD-208

SD-208 is a selective TGF-βRI (ALK5) inhibitor with IC50 of 48 nM, >100-fold selectivity over TGF-βRII.

S7692

A-83-01

A-83-01 is a potent inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptor (ALK5-TD) with IC50 of 12 nM. A-83-01 also inhibits the transcription induced by activin/nodal type I receptor (ALK4-TD) and nodal type I receptor (ALK7-TD) with IC50 of 45 nM and 7.5 nM, respectively.Solutions are best fresh-prepared.

S0752

AUDA

AUDA (compound 43) is a potent inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) with IC50 of 18 nM and 69 nM for the mouse sEH and human sEH, respectively. AUDA has anti-inflammatory activity that reduces the protein expression of MMP-9, IL-1β, TNF-α and TGF-β. AUDA downregulates Smad3 and p38 signaling pathways.

S8700

TP0427736 HCl

TP0427736 is a potent inhibitor of ALK5 kinase activity with an IC50 of 2.72 nM and this effect is 300-fold higher than the inhibitory effect on ALK3 (IC50 = 836 nM for ALK3). It also inhibits Smad2/3 phosphorylation in A549 cells induced by TGF-β1 with an IC50 value of 8.68 nM.

S7627

LDN-214117

LDN-214117 is a potent and selective BMP type I receptor kinase ALK2 inhibitor with IC50 of 24 nM.

S7959

SIS3 HCl

SIS3, a novel specific inhibitor of Smad3, inhibits TGF-β and activin signaling by suppressing Smad3 phosphorylation without affecting the MAPK/p38, ERK, or PI3-kinase signaling pathways.

S2234

BIBF-0775

BIBF-0775 is a selective inhibitor of transforming growth factor β Receptor I (TGFβRI,Alk5) with an IC50 of 34nM.

S8772

LY 3200882

LY 3200882 is a potent, highly selective inhibitor of TGF-β receptor type 1 (TGFβRI). It potently inhibits TGFβ mediated SMAD phosphorylation in vitro in tumor and immune cells and in vivo in subcutaneous tumors in a dose dependent fashion.

S7530

Vactosertib (TEW-7197)

Vactosertib  (TEW-7197, EW-7197) is a highly potent, selective, and orally bioavailable TGF-β receptor ALK4/ALK5 inhibitor with IC50 of 13 nM and 11 nM, respectively. Phase 1.

S7146

DMH1

DMH1 is a selective BMP receptor inhibitor with IC50 of 107.9 nM for ALK2, exhibiting no inhibition on AMPK, ALK5, KDR (VEGFR-2) or PDGFR. DMH1 inhibits autophagy.

S7147

LDN-212854

LDN-212854 (BMP Inhibitor III) is a potent and selective BMP receptor inhibitor with IC50 of 1.3 nM for ALK2, about 2-, 66-, 1641-, and 7135-fold selectivity over ALK1, ALK3, ALK4, and ALK5, respectively.

S7148

ML347

ML347 (LDN-193719) is a selective BMP receptor inhibitor with IC50 of 32 nM for ALK2, >300-fold selectivity over ALK3. Also inhibits ALK1 activity with IC50 of 46 nM.

S8144

Halofuginone

Halofuginone (RU-19110) is the competitively inhibitor of prolyl-tRNA synthetase with Ki of 18.3 nM.It could also down-regulate Smad3 and blocked TGF-β signaling at 10 ng/ml in mammal.

S6713

ITD-1

ITD-1 is a potent TGF-β inhibitor. It does not block the kinase activity of either type I (TGFBR1) or type II (TGFBR2) TGFβ receptors but potently blocks phosphorylation of the effector SMAD2/3 proteins induced by TGFβ2, and only minimally in response to Activin A.

S7840

Dorsomorphin (Compound C)

Dorsomorphin (Compound C, BML-275) is a potent, reversible, selective AMPK inhibitor with Ki of 109 nM in cell-free assays, exhibiting no significant inhibition of several structurally related kinases including ZAPK, SYK, PKCθ, PKA, and JAK3. Dorsomorphin selectively inhibits the BMP type I receptors ALK2, ALK3 and ALK6. Dorsomorphin is used in promoting specific cell differentiation and inducing cancer cell line autophagy. For animal testing, the water-soluble S7306 Dorsomorphin (Compound C) 2HCl is recommended.

S6807

TA-02

TA-02 is a p38 MAPK inhibitor with IC50 of 20 nM. TA-02 especially inhibits TGFBR-2.

S5183

PD 169316

PD 169316 is a potent, selective and cell-permeable p38 MAP kinase inhibitor with IC50 of 89 nM. PD169316 abrogates signaling initiated by both TGFbeta and Activin A. PD169316 shows antiviral activity against Enterovirus71.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S3223New

L-Quebrachitol

L-Quebrachitol (L-QCT), a natural product isolated from many plants, promotes proliferation and cell DNA synthesis. L-Quebrachitol upregulates bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) and regulatory genes associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, while down-regulating the receptor activator of the nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) mRNA level.

S7914

Isoxazole 9 (ISX-9)

Isoxazole 9 (Isx-9) is a synthetic promotor of adult neurogenesis by triggering neuronal differentiation of adult neural stem/precursor cells (NSPCs). Isoxazole 9 (Isx-9) activates multiple pathways including TGF-β induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) signaling, canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling at different stages of cardiac differentiation.

S7658

Kartogenin

Kartogenin (KGN) is an activator of the smad4/smad5 pathway, and promotes the selective differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes.

S0153

SJ000291942

SJ000291942 is a canonical bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) signaling pathway activator.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S0523

SB 4 (Eticovo)

SB 4 (Eticovo) is a potent and selective agonist of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling with EC50 of 74 nM. SB 4 (Eticovo) enhances canonical BMP signaling and activates SMAD-1/5/9 phosphorylation.

S6654

SRI-011381

SRI-011381 is a novel agonist of the TGF-beta signaling pathway for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S2308

Hesperetin

Hesperetin is a bioflavonoid and, to be more specific, a flavanone.

S8318

Alantolactone

Alantolactone (helenin, helenine, Eupatal), a naturally occurring eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactone (SL), could induce activin/SMAD3 signaling and disrupt Cripto-1/activin receptor type II A interaction.

Tags: TGF-beta inhibition | Smad inhibition | TGF-beta signaling | TGF-beta pathway | TGF-beta cancer | Smad signaling | Smad pathway | TGF-beta tumor | TGF-beta activation | TGF-beta family | Smad2 signaling | TGF-beta Smad signaling | Smad3 signaling | Smad cancer | Smad phosphorylation | Smad activation | Smad2 phosphorylation | Smad family | TGF-beta assay | Smad3 phosphorylation | TGF-beta inhibitor clinical trial | TGF-beta inhibitor review