P450 (e.g. CYP17)

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P450 (e.g. CYP17) Signaling Pathway Map

P450 (e.g. CYP17) Signaling Pathways

P450 (e.g. CYP17) Products

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Catalog No. Product Name Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S0110 APD597 APD-597 (JNJ-38431055) is a potent and selective G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) agonist with EC50 of 46 nM for hGPR119 and an inhibitor of Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) with IC50 of 5.8 μM. APD-597 (JNJ-38431055) is developed for treating Type 2 diabetes (T2D).
S0175 DMU2105 DMU2105 is a potent and specific inhibitor of CYP1B1 with IC50 of 10 nM.
S0176 DMU2139 DMU2139 is a potent and specific inhibitor of CYP1B1 with IC50 of 9 nM.
S0230 NVP-VID-400 NVP-VID-400 (SDZ285428) is an inhibitor of CYP51. NVP-VID-400 (SDZ285428) inhibits T. cruzi and T. brucei with I/E2a(5 min) of both <1 and I/E2(60 min) of 9 and 35, respectively.
S0541 Dazoxiben hydrochloride Dazoxiben hydrochloride (HCl) is a potent, selevtive and orally active inhibitor of thromboxane (TX) synthase. Dazoxiben inhibits TXB2 production in clotting human whole blood with IC50 of 0.3 μM and causes parallel enhancement of PGE2 production.
S0721 Ticlopidine Ticlopidine (Yuclid, Ticlopidinum, Ticlopidina) is an orally active inhibitor of platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Ticlopidine is also an inhibitor of CYP2B6 with Ki of 0.2 μM.
S1123 Abiraterone (CB-7598) Abiraterone (CB-7598) is a potent CYP17 inhibitor with IC50 of 2 nM in a cell-free assay. Abiraterone (CB-7598) is an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor.
Cancer Cell, 2021, S1535-6108(21)00659-0
Cancers (Basel), 2021, 13(16)3959
Sci Rep, 2021, 11(1):10765
S1185 Ritonavir (ABT-538) Ritonavir (ABT-538, A 84538, RTV, Norvir, Norvir Softgel) is a Cytochrome P450 3A and Protease Inhibitor; Also inhibits Cytochrome P450 2D6, P-Glycoprotein and induces Cytochrome P450 2C19, Cytochrome P450 1A2, Cytochrome P450 2C9, Cytochrome P450 2B6 and UDP Glucuronosyltransferases. Ritonavir induces apoptosis.
Commun Biol, 2022, 5(1):154
J Virol, 2022, JVI0173021
mBio, 2021, 12(1)e02754-20
S1195 TAK-700 (Orteronel) TAK-700 (Orteronel) is a potent and highly selective human 17,20-lyase inhibitor with IC50 of 38 nM, exhibits >1000-fold selectivity over other CYPs (e.g. 11-hydroxylase and CYP3A4). TAK-700 (Orteronel) is an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor. Phase 3.
Drug Metab Dispos, 2017, 45(6):635-645
Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2016, 477(4):1005-10
S1257 Posaconazole (SCH 56592) Posaconazole (SCH56592) is an inhibitor primarily of CYP3A4, but it does not inhibit the activity of other CYP enzymes; Also an inhibitor of sterol C14ɑ demethylase inhibitor with IC50 of 0.25 μM. Posaconazole has a median terminal elimination half-life of 15-35 hours.
Microbiol Spectr, 2022, 10(1):e0200721
BMC Microbiol, 2022, 22(1):21
Front Microbiol, 2021, 12:649026
S1331 Fluconazole (UK 49858) Fluconazole (UK 49858) is a fungal lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase inhibitor, which thereby prevents the formation of ergosterol,used in the treatment and prevention of superficial and systemic fungal infections.
Nat Commun, 2022, 13(1):1658
Microbiol Spectr, 2022, 10(1):e0200721
Front Microbiol, 2021, 12:761113
S1353 Ketoconazole (R 41400) Ketoconazole (R 41400) inhibits cyclosporine oxidase and testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylase with IC50 of 0.19 mM and 0.22 mM, respectively. Ketoconazole is an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor.
Nat Biotechnol, 2021, 10.1038/s41587-021-00860-4
Nat Commun, 2021, 12(1):652
Pharmacol Res, 2021, 169:105648
S1739 Thiabendazole Thiabendazole inhibits the mitochondrial helminth-specific enzyme, fumarate reductase, with anthelminthic property, used as an anthelmintic and fungicide agent. It is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2).
S1794 Fenofibrate (NSC-281319) Fenofibrate (NSC-281319) is a compound of the fibrate class and fibric acid derivative. Fenofibrate is a selective agonist of PPARα with EC50 of 30 μM. Fenofibrate binds to and inhibits cytochrome P450 epoxygenase (CYP)2C with IC50 of 0.2 μM, 0.7 μM and 9.7 μM for CYP2C19, CYP2B6 and CYP2C9, respectively. Fenofibrate induces autophagy.
Cell Metab, 2022, 34(2):299-316.e6
Redox Biol, 2021, 46:102082
J Cell Mol Med, 2020, 24(6):3384-3398
S1952 Methoxsalen Methoxsalen (Xanthotoxin, NCI-C55903) is a naturally occurring photoactive substance found in the seeds of the Ammi majus (Umbelliferae) plant, used in the diagnosis and treatment of psoriasis; A CYP2A5/6 inhibitor.
Hum Cell, 2022, 10.1007/s13577-022-00671-y
Hum Cell, 2021, 34(6):1911-1918
Hum Cell, 2021, 10.1007/s13577-021-00639-4
S2046 Pioglitazone HCl Pioglitazone HCl (AD-4833, U-72107E) is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C8 and CYP3A4 enzymes. Pioglitazone HCl inhibits CYP2C8, CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 with Ki of 1.7 μM, 11.8 μM and 32.1 μM, respectively. Pioglitazone HCl is also a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonist with EC50 of 0.93 μM and 0.99 μM for human PPARγ and mouse PPARγ, respectively. Pioglitazone HCl inhibits mitochondrial iron uptake, lipid peroxidation, and subsequent ferroptosis.
Commun Biol, 2022, 5(1):231
Ann Transl Med, 2022, 10(6):345
J Cell Mol Med, 2022, 10.1111/jcmm.17154
S2067 Ozagrel HCl Ozagrel HCl (OKY-046) is a selective thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) synthetase inhibitor with IC50 of 11 nM for rabbit platelet, used for the improvement of postoperative cerebrovascular contraction and accompanying cerebral ischaemia.
S2187 Avasimibe (CI-1011) Avasimibe (CI-1011, PD-148515) inhibits ACAT with IC50 of 3.3 μM, also inhibits human P450 isoenzymes CYP2C9, CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 with IC50 of 2.9 μM, 13.9 μM and 26.5 μM, respectively.
Front Pharmacol, 2022, 13:795934
Nat Commun, 2021, 12(1):2814
Cell Chem Biol, 2021, S2451-9456(21)00213-0
S2246 Abiraterone Acetate (CB7630) Abiraterone Acetate (CB7630) is an acetate salt form of Abiraterone which is a steroidal cytochrome CYP17 inhibitor with IC50 of 72 nM in a cell-free assay. Abiraterone acetate is an oral androgen biosynthesis inhibitor.
Clin Cancer Res, 2021, clincanres.4391.2020
Neoplasia, 2021, 23(12):1261-1274
J Biol Chem, 2021, 297(2):100969
S2262 Apigenin (LY 080400) Apigenin (NSC 83244, LY 080400) is a potent P450 inhibitor for CYP2C9 with Ki of 2 μM.
Chem Biol Interact, 2022, S0009-2797(22)00171-5
Cancer Lett, 2021, 515:36-48
Front Cell Infect Microbiol, 2021, 11:630812
S2268 Baicalein Baicalein is a CYP2C9 and prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor.
Adv Sci (Weinh), 2021, e2103360
Free Radic Biol Med, 2021, 163:234-242
Molecules, 2021, 26(5)1210
S2329 Naringin Naringin (Naringoside) is a flavanone glycoside, which exerts a variety of pharmacological effects such as antioxidant activity, blood lipid lowering, anticancer activity, and inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes.
Am J Transl Res, 2021, 13(6):6330-6341
Int J Mol Sci, 2020, 21(14):5025
S2344 Piperine Piperine (1-Piperoylpiperidine) is the alkaloid responsible for the pungency of black pepper and long pepper, which has also been used in some forms of traditional medicine and as an insecticide.
Int J Mol Med, 2015, 36(5):1369-76
S2380 Diosmetin Diosmetin (Luteolin 4-methyl ether) is a bioflavonoid found in spearmint, oregano, and many other plants.
Mol Med Rep, 2020, 22(2):1335-1341
Br J Pharmacol, 2019, 176(12):2079-2094
Int J Biol Sci, 2019, 15(11):2497-2508
S2389 Naringin Dihydrochalcone Naringin Dihydrochalcone(Naringin DC) is a new-style sweetening agent and an artificial sweetener derived from naringin and also an inhibitor of CYP enzymes.
S2394 Naringenin Naringenin (NSC 34875, S-Dihydrogenistein, NSC 11855, Salipurol) is a natural predominant flavanone derived from plant food, which is considered to have a bioactive effect on human health as antioxidant, free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory, carbohydrate metabolism promoter, and immune system modulator.
Kidney Blood Press Res, 2022, 10.1159/000524172
Eur J Pharmacol, 2020, 173323
Int J Mol Sci, 2020, 21(14):5025
S2401 Sodium Danshensu Sodium Danshensu is a mono sodium of danshensu, which is a natural phenolic acid of caffeic acid derivatives isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza.
J Med Virol, 2019, 91(8):1440-1447
S2476 Itraconazole (R 51211) Itraconazole (R 51211) is a relatively potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 with IC50 of 6.1 nM, used as a triazole antifungal agent. Itraconazole is a potent antagonist of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. Itraconazole suppresses the growth of glioblastoma through induction of autophagy.
Microbiol Spectr, 2022, 10(1):e0200721
BMC Microbiol, 2022, 22(1):21
Hum Cell, 2022, 10.1007/s13577-022-00671-y
S2496 Ozagrel Ozagrel (OKY-046) is a selective thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) synthetase inhibitor with IC50 of 11 nM for rabbit platelet, used for the improvement of postoperative cerebrovascular contraction and accompanying cerebral ischaemia.
S2526 Alizarin Alizarin (Anthraquinonic) strongly inhibits P450 isoform CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 with IC50 of 6.2 μM, 10.0 μM and 2.7 μM, respectively; weakly inhibits CYP2A6 and CYP2E1, and does not inhibit CYP2C19, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5.
Cell Rep, 2020, 14;31(2):107518
Biomaterials, 2019, 192:323-333
S2555 Clarithromycin Clarithromycin (A-56268) is a macrolide antibiotic and a CYP3A4 inhibitor, used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
Cell Biol Toxicol, 2021, 10.1007/s10565-021-09646-5
J Ovarian Res, 2019, 12(1):107
J Med Chem, 2018, 61(9):4189-4202
S2803 Galeterone Galeterone (TOK-001) is a selective CYP17 inhibitor and androgen receptor (AR) antagonist with IC50 of 300 nM and 384 nM, respectively, and is a potent inhibitor of human prostate tumor growth. Phase 2.
ChemMedChem, 2022, e202200043
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol, 2020, 10.1007/s00280-020-04195-w
Steroids, 2020, 153:108534
S2900 Cobicistat (GS-9350) Cobicistat (GS-9350) is a potent and selective inhibitor of CYP3A with IC50 of 30-285 nM.
Hum Cell, 2022, 10.1007/s13577-022-00671-y
Hum Cell, 2021, 34(6):1911-1918
Hum Cell, 2021, 10.1007/s13577-021-00579-z
S2921 PF-4981517 PF-4981517 (CYP3cide, PF-04981517) is a potent and selective inhibitor of CYP3A4 (P450) with IC50 of 0.03 μM, exhibits >500-fold selectivity over CYP3A5 and CYP3A7.
S3227 5,7-Dimethoxyflavone 5,7-Dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF) is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3As that markedly decreases the expression of CYP3A11 and CYP3A25 in the liver. 5,7-Dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF) is also a potent Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP, ABCG2) inhibitor. 5,7-Dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF) is one of the major components of Kaempferia parviflora with anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic effects.
S3273 Hypericin Hypericin (Hyp, HY) is a naturally occurring substance found in the common St. John's Wort (Hypericum species) with antidepressive, antineoplastic and antiviral (human immunodeficiency and hepatitis C virus) activities. Hypericin has inhibitory effects on MAO (monoaminoxidase), PKC (protein kinase C), dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, reverse transcriptase, telomerase and CYP (cytochrome P450).
Eur J Pharmacol, 2021, 900:174071
S3291 Myristicin Myristicin (Myristicine), a terpene-like active component in Nutmeg which is the seed of Myristica fragrans, is a weak inhibitor of monamine oxidase (MAO) and a mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP1A2.
S3660 Uniconazole (S 3307D) Uniconazole (S 3307D, XE 1019D) is a well known inhibitor of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that prevents the biosynthesis of trans-zeatin. Uniconazole targets CYP735As with Ki of 22 μM.
Nat Microbiol, 2022, 10.1038/s41564-022-01072-5
Nat Biotechnol, 2021, 10.1038/s41587-021-00860-4
S3673 Sulfaphenazole Sulfaphenazole (Depocid, Depotsulfonamide, Plisulfan, Raziosulfa) is an inhibitor of CYP2C9 with Ki value of 0.3 μM and demonstrates at least 100-fold selectivity over other CYP450 isoforms (Ki values of 63 and 29 μM for CYP2C8 and CYP2C18, respectively, and no activity at CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C19).
Chem Biol Interact, 2022, 353:109801
S3719 Topiroxostat Topiroxostat is a xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitor and used for treatment of gout and hyperuricemia. Topiroxostat exhibits weak CYP3A4-inhibitory activity (18.6%). Topiroxostat has the potential for hyperuricemia treatment.
S3766 Tanshinone IIA sulfonate sodium Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) is a water-soluble derivative of tanshinone IIA isolated as the main pharmacologically active natural compound from a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, the dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge known as Danshen. Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) is a potent negative allosteric modulator of the human purinergic receptor P2X7. Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) inhibits the activity of CYP3A4 and store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) through store-operated Ca2+ channels (SOCC) via downregulating the expression of transient receptor potential canonical proteins (TRPC).
S3777 Gentiopicroside Gentiopicroside (GE, Gentiopicrin), a naturally occurring iridoid glycoside, inhibits CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 with IC50 values of 21.8μg/ml and 594μg/ml, respectively in human liver microsomes, and dose not inhibit CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP1A2 or CYP3A4 activities.
S3874 Curcumenol Curcumenol, a sesquiterpene isolated from Curcuma zedoaria, is known to possess a variety of health and medicinal values which includes neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and hepatoprotective activities. It inhibits NF-κB activation by suppressing the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit and blocking IκBα phosphorylation and degradation.
J Bone Miner Res, 2021, 10.1002/jbmr.4328
Int J Mol Med, 2021, 48(4)192
S3917 Tetrahydrocurcumin Tetrahydrocurcumin (Tetrahydrodiferuloylmethane, Tetrahydro Curcumin), a major metabolite of curcumin, possesses strong antioxidant and cardioprotective properties. Tetrahydrocurcumin is a Curcuminoid found in turmeric (Curcuma longa) that is produced by the reduction of Curcumin. Tetrahydrocurcumin inhibit CYP2C9 and CYP3A4.
S3931 Ginsenoside Rd Ginsenoside Rd (Panaxoside Rd, Sanchinoside Rd), a minor ginseng saponin, has several pharmacological activities such as immunosuppressive activity, anti-inflammatory activity, immunological adjuvant, anti-cancer activity and wound-healing activity. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits TNFα-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity with an IC50 of 12.05±0.82 μM in HepG2 cells. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits expression of COX-2 and iNOS mRNA. Ginsenoside Rd also inhibits Ca2+ influx. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits CYP2D6, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2C9, with IC50s of 58.0±4.5 μM, 78.4±5.3 μM, 81.7±2.6 μM, and 85.1±9.1 μM, respectively.
J Ethnopharmacol, 2021, S0378-8741(21)00169-0
S4202 Verapamil (CP-16533-1) HCl Verapamil HCl (CP-16533-1) is an L-type calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent. Verapamil inhibits both permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP3A4.
EMBO Mol Med, 2022, 14(2):e14903
Cell Rep, 2022, 38(10):110468
ACS Nano, 2021, 10.1021/acsnano.1c03517
S4221 Benzbromarone Benzbromarone is a CYP2C9 inhibitor, it binds to CYP2C9 with Ki value of 19.3 nM.
Hum Mol Genet, 2020, ddaa244
S4662 Atazanavir Atazanavir (Latazanavir, Zrivada, Reyataz, BMS-232632) is an azapeptide and HIV-protease inhibitor that is used in the treatment of HIV infections and AIDS in combination with other anti-HIV agents. Atazanavir is a substrate and inhibitor of cytochrome P450 isozyme 3A (CYP3A4) and an inhibitor and inducer of P-glycoprotein.
Sci Rep, 2021, 11(1):19443
Front Cardiovasc Med, 2021, 8:634774
ACS Infect Dis, 2020, 10.1021/acsinfecdis.0c00536
S4831 Piperonyl butoxide Piperonyl butoxide (PBO, Butacide, Ethanol butoxide, Pyrenone 606) is a man-made pesticide synergist, working with insect killers to increase their effectiveness.Piperonyl butoxide is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases(P450s).
S4938 Cedrol Cedrol, a natural occuring sesquiterpene alcohol, is a potent competitive inhibitor of CYP2B6-mediated bupropion hydroxylase with inhibition constant (Ki) value of 0.9 μM. It also inhibits CYP3A4-mediated midazolam hydroxylation with a Ki value of 3.4 μM while only weakly inhibits CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 activities.
S4963 Purpurin Purpurin (1,2,4-Trihydroxyanthraquinone, Hydroxylizaric acid, Verantin) is one of the natural colorants extracted from madder roots and other Rubiaceae family plants. It exhibits anti-angiogenic, antifungal, antibiotic, and antioxidative activities. Purpurin strongly inhibits the activities of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1.
S5169 2,6-Dihydroxyanthraquinone 2,6-Dihydroxyanthraquinone (Anthraflavic acid, Anthraflavin) is a potent and specific inhibitor of cytochrome P-448 activity.
S5252 Ozagrel sodium Ozagrel sodium (KCT-0809, Cataclot, Xanbo) is a thromboxane A2 synthase (CYP5) inhibitor with neuroprotective properties.
S5266 Stiripentol Stiripentol (BCX2600) is a third-generation anti-epileptic drug that enhances GABAergic neurotransmission. It is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450.
Cell Metab, 2022, 34(1):90-105.e7
Front Pharmacol, 2021, 12:785586
S5380 7-Hydroxyflavone 7-Hydroxyflavone is a potent inhibitor of CYP1A1 with a Ki value of 0.015 μM and exhibits 6-fold greater selectivity for CYP1A1 over CYP1A2. It also has excellent antioxidant properties and great potential to be applied as medicines.
S5416 Metyrapone Metyrapone (NSC-25265, SU-4885) is an inhibitor of the enzyme steroid 11-beta-monooxygenase (CYP11B1) that inhibits adrenal steroid synthesis.
S5429 Diallyl sulfide Diallyl sulfide, a thioether found naturally in garlic, is a selective inhibitor and also a substrate of CYP2E1 with an IC50 of 17.3 μM. It has protective effects against alcohol- and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in many studies.
S5529 Galangin Galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone; Norizalpinin), a naturally occuring flavonoid found in herbs, is a well-known antioxidant and also an inhibitor of CYP1A1 activity and an agonist/antagonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.
S5658 Omeprazole Sodium Omeprazole Sodium is the sodium salt form of omeprazole, which is a proton pump inhibitor and suppresses gastric acid secretion. Omeprazole Sodium is a metabolism-dependent inhibitor (MDI) of CYP2C19.
Theranostics, 2021, 11(5):2364-2380
J Virol, 2021, JVI.00190-21
Biosci Rep, 2021, BSR20200842
S6437 Oxolamine Citrate Oxolamine (SKF-9976, AF-438) citrate, a cough suppressant, is an inhibitor of CYP2B1/2. Oxolamine citrate also exhibits anti-inflammatory effect.
S6594New Liarozole dihydrochloride Liarozole Dihydrochloride is identified as a modest inhibitor of P450 with IC50 of 2.2–6.0 μM and 260 nM for CYP26 and rat CYP17 respectively.
S6886 1-Aminobenzotriazole 1-Aminobenzotriazole (ABT, 3-Aminobenzotriazole, 1-Benzotriazolylamine, NSC 114498, NSC 656987) is a nonselective and irreversible inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. 1-Aminobenzotriazole is also a substrate and inhibitor of N-acetyltransferase (NAT).
S7456 Osilodrostat (LCI699) LCI699(Osilodrostat) is a potent inhibitor of 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B), an enzyme catalyzing the final step of cortisol synthesis.
Drug Metab Dispos, 2022, 50(2):114-127
J Biol Chem, 2021, S0021-9258(21)00587-1
S9163 Rhapontigenin Rhapontigenin (Protigenin), produced from rhapontin isolated from a methanol extract of Rheum undulatum roots by enzymatic transformation, is a selective inactivator of cytochrome P450 1A1 (IC50 = 400 nM).
S9241 Polygalaxanthone III Polygalaxanthone III is a natural product with the efficacy of tranquilization, glaangal, eliminating sputum and detumescence. Polygalaxanthone III inhibits chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation catalyzed by CYP2E1 with an IC50 of 50.56 μM.
S9250 Isosilybin Isosilybin (Silymarin, Silybin B, Isosilybinin, Q-100795) is a flavanolignan found in the extract of S. marianum fruits with antioxidant and anticancer activities. Isosilybin inhibits CYP3A4 induction with an IC50 of 74 μM.
S9257 Acetylshikonin Acetylshikonin is a biologically active compound with anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activity, which is isolated from the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizoma. It is a novel general P450 inhibitor with IC50 values of 1.4-4.0 μM for all tested P450s.
S9299 Ginsenoside F1 Ginsenoside F1, a pharmaceutical component of ginseng, is known to have antiaging, antioxidant, anticancer, and keratinocyte protective effects. Ginsenoside F1 exhibits competitive inhibition of the activity of CYP3A4 with Ki values of 67.8 ± 16.2 μM. Ginsenoside F1 also exhibited a weaker inhibition of the activity of CYP2D6.
S9442 Bergaptol Bergaptol (5-Hydroxypsoralen, 5-Hydroxyfuranocoumarin) is a natural furanocoumarin found in the essential oils of citrus including lemon and bergamot.Bergaptol is a potent inhibitors of debenzylation activity of CYP3A4 enzyme with an IC50 value of 24.92 μM.
A5216 Cytochrome P450 2D6 Rabbit Recombinant mAb Cytochrome P450 2D6 Rabbit Recombinant mAb detects endogenous level of total Cytochrome P450 2D6.
A5239 Alas1 Rabbit Recombinant mAb Alas1 Rabbit Recombinant mAb detects endogenous level of total Alas1.
A5282 Aromatase Rabbit Recombinant mAb Aromatase Rabbit Recombinant mAb detects endogenous level of total Aromatase.
S2271 Berberine chloride (NSC 646666) Berberine chloride (NSC 646666, Natural Yellow 18) is a quaternary ammonium salt from the group of isoquinoline alkaloids. Berberine activates caspase 3 and caspase 8, cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and the release of cytochrome c. Berberine chloride decreases the expression of c-IAP1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Berberine chloride induces apoptosis with sustained phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, as well as generation of the ROS. Berberine chloride is a dual topoisomerase I and II inhibitor. Berberine chloride is also a potential autophagy modulator.
Front Pharmacol, 2021, 12:632201
Molecules, 2021, 26(5)1210
Biology (Basel), 2021, 10(3)250
S4784 Phloracetophenone Phloracetophenone, or 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THA), the aglycone component of phloracetophenone glucoside, is a naturally occurring compound obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma comosa (Family Zingiberaceae). Phloracetophenone can stimulate CYP7A1 activity. Phloracetophenone induces cholestasis in rats mediated through Mrp2.
S5967 Berberine chloride hydrate Berberine (Natural Yellow 18) chloride hydrate is a quaternary ammonium salt from the group of isoquinoline alkaloids. Berberine activates caspase 3 and caspase 8, cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and the release of cytochrome c. Berberine chloride decreases the expression of c-IAP1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Berberine chloride induces apoptosis with sustained phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, as well as generation of the ROS. Berberine chloride is a dual topoisomerase I and II inhibitor. Berberine chloride is also a potential autophagy modulator.
Front Pharmacol, 2021, 12:632201
S6868 Alflutinib (AST2818) mesylate Alflutinib (AST2818, Furmonertinib) mesylate is a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor that inhibits both EGFR-sensitive mutations and T790M mutations. Alflutinib (AST2818), primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, is also a potent CYP3A4 inducer with EC50 of 0.25 μM.
S5969 Dicloxacillin Sodium hydrate Dicloxacillin Sodium hydrate (DLX, Dycill, Dynapen, Pathocil), a narrow-spectrum β-Lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class, induces drug-metabolizing CYP enzymes to a clinically relevant extent.
S6606 CDD3505 CDD3505 is used for elevating high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) by inducing hepatic cytochrome P450IIIA (CYP3A) activity.
S1442 Voriconazole (UK-109496) Voriconazole (UK-109496) is a new triazole derivative similar to fluconazole and itraconazole that acts by inhibiting fungal cytochrome P-450-dependent, 14-alpha-sterol demethylase-mediated synthesis of ergosterol.
Microbiol Spectr, 2022, 10(1):e0200721
BMC Microbiol, 2022, 22(1):21
Front Microbiol, 2021, 12:649026
S1712 Deferasirox (ICL-670) Deferasirox (ICL-670, CGP-72670) is an iron chelator, also a cytochrome P450 3A4 inducer, Cytochrome P450 2C8 inhibitor, and Cytochrome P450 1A2 inhibitor. Deferasirox-induced iron depletion promotes BclxL downregulation and cell death.
Cancer Res, 2022, canres.0218.2021
Br J Haematol, 2021, 192(4):747-760
J Transl Med, 2021, 19(1):347
S4155 Chlorzoxazone Chlorzoxazone is a muscle-relaxing drug,and a probe for human liver cytochrome P-450IIE1.
S4741 Danshensu Danshensu (Salvianic acid A), a herbal preparation used in traditional Chinese medicine, possesses potential antitumor and anti‑angiogenesis effects. Danshensu inhibits CYP2E1 and CYP2C9 with IC50 of 36.63 and 75.76 μm, respectively.
S6790 Ellipticine hydrochloride Ellipticine Hydrochloride (NSC 71795, PZE) is a potent inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II and forms covalent DNA adducts mediated by its oxidation with cytochromes P450 (CYP) and peroxidases. Ellipticine Hydrochloride is a natural product isolated from the Australian evergreen tree of the Apocynaceae family with antineoplastic activity.
S0110 APD597 APD-597 (JNJ-38431055) is a potent and selective G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) agonist with EC50 of 46 nM for hGPR119 and an inhibitor of Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) with IC50 of 5.8 μM. APD-597 (JNJ-38431055) is developed for treating Type 2 diabetes (T2D).
S0175 DMU2105 DMU2105 is a potent and specific inhibitor of CYP1B1 with IC50 of 10 nM.
S0176 DMU2139 DMU2139 is a potent and specific inhibitor of CYP1B1 with IC50 of 9 nM.
S0230 NVP-VID-400 NVP-VID-400 (SDZ285428) is an inhibitor of CYP51. NVP-VID-400 (SDZ285428) inhibits T. cruzi and T. brucei with I/E2a(5 min) of both <1 and I/E2(60 min) of 9 and 35, respectively.
S0541 Dazoxiben hydrochloride Dazoxiben hydrochloride (HCl) is a potent, selevtive and orally active inhibitor of thromboxane (TX) synthase. Dazoxiben inhibits TXB2 production in clotting human whole blood with IC50 of 0.3 μM and causes parallel enhancement of PGE2 production.
S0721 Ticlopidine Ticlopidine (Yuclid, Ticlopidinum, Ticlopidina) is an orally active inhibitor of platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Ticlopidine is also an inhibitor of CYP2B6 with Ki of 0.2 μM.
S1123 Abiraterone (CB-7598) Abiraterone (CB-7598) is a potent CYP17 inhibitor with IC50 of 2 nM in a cell-free assay. Abiraterone (CB-7598) is an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor.
Cancer Cell, 2021, S1535-6108(21)00659-0
Cancers (Basel), 2021, 13(16)3959
Sci Rep, 2021, 11(1):10765
S1185 Ritonavir (ABT-538) Ritonavir (ABT-538, A 84538, RTV, Norvir, Norvir Softgel) is a Cytochrome P450 3A and Protease Inhibitor; Also inhibits Cytochrome P450 2D6, P-Glycoprotein and induces Cytochrome P450 2C19, Cytochrome P450 1A2, Cytochrome P450 2C9, Cytochrome P450 2B6 and UDP Glucuronosyltransferases. Ritonavir induces apoptosis.
Commun Biol, 2022, 5(1):154
J Virol, 2022, JVI0173021
mBio, 2021, 12(1)e02754-20
S1195 TAK-700 (Orteronel) TAK-700 (Orteronel) is a potent and highly selective human 17,20-lyase inhibitor with IC50 of 38 nM, exhibits >1000-fold selectivity over other CYPs (e.g. 11-hydroxylase and CYP3A4). TAK-700 (Orteronel) is an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor. Phase 3.
Drug Metab Dispos, 2017, 45(6):635-645
Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2016, 477(4):1005-10
S1257 Posaconazole (SCH 56592) Posaconazole (SCH56592) is an inhibitor primarily of CYP3A4, but it does not inhibit the activity of other CYP enzymes; Also an inhibitor of sterol C14ɑ demethylase inhibitor with IC50 of 0.25 μM. Posaconazole has a median terminal elimination half-life of 15-35 hours.
Microbiol Spectr, 2022, 10(1):e0200721
BMC Microbiol, 2022, 22(1):21
Front Microbiol, 2021, 12:649026
S1331 Fluconazole (UK 49858) Fluconazole (UK 49858) is a fungal lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase inhibitor, which thereby prevents the formation of ergosterol,used in the treatment and prevention of superficial and systemic fungal infections.
Nat Commun, 2022, 13(1):1658
Microbiol Spectr, 2022, 10(1):e0200721
Front Microbiol, 2021, 12:761113
S1353 Ketoconazole (R 41400) Ketoconazole (R 41400) inhibits cyclosporine oxidase and testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylase with IC50 of 0.19 mM and 0.22 mM, respectively. Ketoconazole is an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor.
Nat Biotechnol, 2021, 10.1038/s41587-021-00860-4
Nat Commun, 2021, 12(1):652
Pharmacol Res, 2021, 169:105648
S1739 Thiabendazole Thiabendazole inhibits the mitochondrial helminth-specific enzyme, fumarate reductase, with anthelminthic property, used as an anthelmintic and fungicide agent. It is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2).
S1794 Fenofibrate (NSC-281319) Fenofibrate (NSC-281319) is a compound of the fibrate class and fibric acid derivative. Fenofibrate is a selective agonist of PPARα with EC50 of 30 μM. Fenofibrate binds to and inhibits cytochrome P450 epoxygenase (CYP)2C with IC50 of 0.2 μM, 0.7 μM and 9.7 μM for CYP2C19, CYP2B6 and CYP2C9, respectively. Fenofibrate induces autophagy.
Cell Metab, 2022, 34(2):299-316.e6
Redox Biol, 2021, 46:102082
J Cell Mol Med, 2020, 24(6):3384-3398
S1952 Methoxsalen Methoxsalen (Xanthotoxin, NCI-C55903) is a naturally occurring photoactive substance found in the seeds of the Ammi majus (Umbelliferae) plant, used in the diagnosis and treatment of psoriasis; A CYP2A5/6 inhibitor.
Hum Cell, 2022, 10.1007/s13577-022-00671-y
Hum Cell, 2021, 34(6):1911-1918
Hum Cell, 2021, 10.1007/s13577-021-00639-4
S2046 Pioglitazone HCl Pioglitazone HCl (AD-4833, U-72107E) is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C8 and CYP3A4 enzymes. Pioglitazone HCl inhibits CYP2C8, CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 with Ki of 1.7 μM, 11.8 μM and 32.1 μM, respectively. Pioglitazone HCl is also a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonist with EC50 of 0.93 μM and 0.99 μM for human PPARγ and mouse PPARγ, respectively. Pioglitazone HCl inhibits mitochondrial iron uptake, lipid peroxidation, and subsequent ferroptosis.
Commun Biol, 2022, 5(1):231
Ann Transl Med, 2022, 10(6):345
J Cell Mol Med, 2022, 10.1111/jcmm.17154
S2067 Ozagrel HCl Ozagrel HCl (OKY-046) is a selective thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) synthetase inhibitor with IC50 of 11 nM for rabbit platelet, used for the improvement of postoperative cerebrovascular contraction and accompanying cerebral ischaemia.
S2187 Avasimibe (CI-1011) Avasimibe (CI-1011, PD-148515) inhibits ACAT with IC50 of 3.3 μM, also inhibits human P450 isoenzymes CYP2C9, CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 with IC50 of 2.9 μM, 13.9 μM and 26.5 μM, respectively.
Front Pharmacol, 2022, 13:795934
Nat Commun, 2021, 12(1):2814
Cell Chem Biol, 2021, S2451-9456(21)00213-0
S2246 Abiraterone Acetate (CB7630) Abiraterone Acetate (CB7630) is an acetate salt form of Abiraterone which is a steroidal cytochrome CYP17 inhibitor with IC50 of 72 nM in a cell-free assay. Abiraterone acetate is an oral androgen biosynthesis inhibitor.
Clin Cancer Res, 2021, clincanres.4391.2020
Neoplasia, 2021, 23(12):1261-1274
J Biol Chem, 2021, 297(2):100969
S2262 Apigenin (LY 080400) Apigenin (NSC 83244, LY 080400) is a potent P450 inhibitor for CYP2C9 with Ki of 2 μM.
Chem Biol Interact, 2022, S0009-2797(22)00171-5
Cancer Lett, 2021, 515:36-48
Front Cell Infect Microbiol, 2021, 11:630812
S2268 Baicalein Baicalein is a CYP2C9 and prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor.
Adv Sci (Weinh), 2021, e2103360
Free Radic Biol Med, 2021, 163:234-242
Molecules, 2021, 26(5)1210
S2329 Naringin Naringin (Naringoside) is a flavanone glycoside, which exerts a variety of pharmacological effects such as antioxidant activity, blood lipid lowering, anticancer activity, and inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes.
Am J Transl Res, 2021, 13(6):6330-6341
Int J Mol Sci, 2020, 21(14):5025
S2344 Piperine Piperine (1-Piperoylpiperidine) is the alkaloid responsible for the pungency of black pepper and long pepper, which has also been used in some forms of traditional medicine and as an insecticide.
Int J Mol Med, 2015, 36(5):1369-76
S2380 Diosmetin Diosmetin (Luteolin 4-methyl ether) is a bioflavonoid found in spearmint, oregano, and many other plants.
Mol Med Rep, 2020, 22(2):1335-1341
Br J Pharmacol, 2019, 176(12):2079-2094
Int J Biol Sci, 2019, 15(11):2497-2508
S2389 Naringin Dihydrochalcone Naringin Dihydrochalcone(Naringin DC) is a new-style sweetening agent and an artificial sweetener derived from naringin and also an inhibitor of CYP enzymes.
S2394 Naringenin Naringenin (NSC 34875, S-Dihydrogenistein, NSC 11855, Salipurol) is a natural predominant flavanone derived from plant food, which is considered to have a bioactive effect on human health as antioxidant, free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory, carbohydrate metabolism promoter, and immune system modulator.
Kidney Blood Press Res, 2022, 10.1159/000524172
Eur J Pharmacol, 2020, 173323
Int J Mol Sci, 2020, 21(14):5025
S2401 Sodium Danshensu Sodium Danshensu is a mono sodium of danshensu, which is a natural phenolic acid of caffeic acid derivatives isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza.
J Med Virol, 2019, 91(8):1440-1447
S2476 Itraconazole (R 51211) Itraconazole (R 51211) is a relatively potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 with IC50 of 6.1 nM, used as a triazole antifungal agent. Itraconazole is a potent antagonist of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. Itraconazole suppresses the growth of glioblastoma through induction of autophagy.
Microbiol Spectr, 2022, 10(1):e0200721
BMC Microbiol, 2022, 22(1):21
Hum Cell, 2022, 10.1007/s13577-022-00671-y
S2496 Ozagrel Ozagrel (OKY-046) is a selective thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) synthetase inhibitor with IC50 of 11 nM for rabbit platelet, used for the improvement of postoperative cerebrovascular contraction and accompanying cerebral ischaemia.
S2526 Alizarin Alizarin (Anthraquinonic) strongly inhibits P450 isoform CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 with IC50 of 6.2 μM, 10.0 μM and 2.7 μM, respectively; weakly inhibits CYP2A6 and CYP2E1, and does not inhibit CYP2C19, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5.
Cell Rep, 2020, 14;31(2):107518
Biomaterials, 2019, 192:323-333
S2555 Clarithromycin Clarithromycin (A-56268) is a macrolide antibiotic and a CYP3A4 inhibitor, used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
Cell Biol Toxicol, 2021, 10.1007/s10565-021-09646-5
J Ovarian Res, 2019, 12(1):107
J Med Chem, 2018, 61(9):4189-4202
S2803 Galeterone Galeterone (TOK-001) is a selective CYP17 inhibitor and androgen receptor (AR) antagonist with IC50 of 300 nM and 384 nM, respectively, and is a potent inhibitor of human prostate tumor growth. Phase 2.
ChemMedChem, 2022, e202200043
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol, 2020, 10.1007/s00280-020-04195-w
Steroids, 2020, 153:108534
S2900 Cobicistat (GS-9350) Cobicistat (GS-9350) is a potent and selective inhibitor of CYP3A with IC50 of 30-285 nM.
Hum Cell, 2022, 10.1007/s13577-022-00671-y
Hum Cell, 2021, 34(6):1911-1918
Hum Cell, 2021, 10.1007/s13577-021-00579-z
S2921 PF-4981517 PF-4981517 (CYP3cide, PF-04981517) is a potent and selective inhibitor of CYP3A4 (P450) with IC50 of 0.03 μM, exhibits >500-fold selectivity over CYP3A5 and CYP3A7.
S3227 5,7-Dimethoxyflavone 5,7-Dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF) is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3As that markedly decreases the expression of CYP3A11 and CYP3A25 in the liver. 5,7-Dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF) is also a potent Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP, ABCG2) inhibitor. 5,7-Dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF) is one of the major components of Kaempferia parviflora with anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic effects.
S3273 Hypericin Hypericin (Hyp, HY) is a naturally occurring substance found in the common St. John's Wort (Hypericum species) with antidepressive, antineoplastic and antiviral (human immunodeficiency and hepatitis C virus) activities. Hypericin has inhibitory effects on MAO (monoaminoxidase), PKC (protein kinase C), dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, reverse transcriptase, telomerase and CYP (cytochrome P450).
Eur J Pharmacol, 2021, 900:174071
S3291 Myristicin Myristicin (Myristicine), a terpene-like active component in Nutmeg which is the seed of Myristica fragrans, is a weak inhibitor of monamine oxidase (MAO) and a mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP1A2.
S3660 Uniconazole (S 3307D) Uniconazole (S 3307D, XE 1019D) is a well known inhibitor of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that prevents the biosynthesis of trans-zeatin. Uniconazole targets CYP735As with Ki of 22 μM.
Nat Microbiol, 2022, 10.1038/s41564-022-01072-5
Nat Biotechnol, 2021, 10.1038/s41587-021-00860-4
S3673 Sulfaphenazole Sulfaphenazole (Depocid, Depotsulfonamide, Plisulfan, Raziosulfa) is an inhibitor of CYP2C9 with Ki value of 0.3 μM and demonstrates at least 100-fold selectivity over other CYP450 isoforms (Ki values of 63 and 29 μM for CYP2C8 and CYP2C18, respectively, and no activity at CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C19).
Chem Biol Interact, 2022, 353:109801
S3719 Topiroxostat Topiroxostat is a xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitor and used for treatment of gout and hyperuricemia. Topiroxostat exhibits weak CYP3A4-inhibitory activity (18.6%). Topiroxostat has the potential for hyperuricemia treatment.
S3766 Tanshinone IIA sulfonate sodium Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) is a water-soluble derivative of tanshinone IIA isolated as the main pharmacologically active natural compound from a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, the dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge known as Danshen. Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) is a potent negative allosteric modulator of the human purinergic receptor P2X7. Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) inhibits the activity of CYP3A4 and store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) through store-operated Ca2+ channels (SOCC) via downregulating the expression of transient receptor potential canonical proteins (TRPC).
S3777 Gentiopicroside Gentiopicroside (GE, Gentiopicrin), a naturally occurring iridoid glycoside, inhibits CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 with IC50 values of 21.8μg/ml and 594μg/ml, respectively in human liver microsomes, and dose not inhibit CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP1A2 or CYP3A4 activities.
S3874 Curcumenol Curcumenol, a sesquiterpene isolated from Curcuma zedoaria, is known to possess a variety of health and medicinal values which includes neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and hepatoprotective activities. It inhibits NF-κB activation by suppressing the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit and blocking IκBα phosphorylation and degradation.
J Bone Miner Res, 2021, 10.1002/jbmr.4328
Int J Mol Med, 2021, 48(4)192
S3917 Tetrahydrocurcumin Tetrahydrocurcumin (Tetrahydrodiferuloylmethane, Tetrahydro Curcumin), a major metabolite of curcumin, possesses strong antioxidant and cardioprotective properties. Tetrahydrocurcumin is a Curcuminoid found in turmeric (Curcuma longa) that is produced by the reduction of Curcumin. Tetrahydrocurcumin inhibit CYP2C9 and CYP3A4.
S3931 Ginsenoside Rd Ginsenoside Rd (Panaxoside Rd, Sanchinoside Rd), a minor ginseng saponin, has several pharmacological activities such as immunosuppressive activity, anti-inflammatory activity, immunological adjuvant, anti-cancer activity and wound-healing activity. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits TNFα-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity with an IC50 of 12.05±0.82 μM in HepG2 cells. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits expression of COX-2 and iNOS mRNA. Ginsenoside Rd also inhibits Ca2+ influx. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits CYP2D6, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2C9, with IC50s of 58.0±4.5 μM, 78.4±5.3 μM, 81.7±2.6 μM, and 85.1±9.1 μM, respectively.
J Ethnopharmacol, 2021, S0378-8741(21)00169-0
S4202 Verapamil (CP-16533-1) HCl Verapamil HCl (CP-16533-1) is an L-type calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent. Verapamil inhibits both permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP3A4.
EMBO Mol Med, 2022, 14(2):e14903
Cell Rep, 2022, 38(10):110468
ACS Nano, 2021, 10.1021/acsnano.1c03517
S4221 Benzbromarone Benzbromarone is a CYP2C9 inhibitor, it binds to CYP2C9 with Ki value of 19.3 nM.
Hum Mol Genet, 2020, ddaa244
S4662 Atazanavir Atazanavir (Latazanavir, Zrivada, Reyataz, BMS-232632) is an azapeptide and HIV-protease inhibitor that is used in the treatment of HIV infections and AIDS in combination with other anti-HIV agents. Atazanavir is a substrate and inhibitor of cytochrome P450 isozyme 3A (CYP3A4) and an inhibitor and inducer of P-glycoprotein.
Sci Rep, 2021, 11(1):19443
Front Cardiovasc Med, 2021, 8:634774
ACS Infect Dis, 2020, 10.1021/acsinfecdis.0c00536
S4831 Piperonyl butoxide Piperonyl butoxide (PBO, Butacide, Ethanol butoxide, Pyrenone 606) is a man-made pesticide synergist, working with insect killers to increase their effectiveness.Piperonyl butoxide is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases(P450s).
S4938 Cedrol Cedrol, a natural occuring sesquiterpene alcohol, is a potent competitive inhibitor of CYP2B6-mediated bupropion hydroxylase with inhibition constant (Ki) value of 0.9 μM. It also inhibits CYP3A4-mediated midazolam hydroxylation with a Ki value of 3.4 μM while only weakly inhibits CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 activities.
S4963 Purpurin Purpurin (1,2,4-Trihydroxyanthraquinone, Hydroxylizaric acid, Verantin) is one of the natural colorants extracted from madder roots and other Rubiaceae family plants. It exhibits anti-angiogenic, antifungal, antibiotic, and antioxidative activities. Purpurin strongly inhibits the activities of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1.
S5169 2,6-Dihydroxyanthraquinone 2,6-Dihydroxyanthraquinone (Anthraflavic acid, Anthraflavin) is a potent and specific inhibitor of cytochrome P-448 activity.
S5252 Ozagrel sodium Ozagrel sodium (KCT-0809, Cataclot, Xanbo) is a thromboxane A2 synthase (CYP5) inhibitor with neuroprotective properties.
S5266 Stiripentol Stiripentol (BCX2600) is a third-generation anti-epileptic drug that enhances GABAergic neurotransmission. It is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450.
Cell Metab, 2022, 34(1):90-105.e7
Front Pharmacol, 2021, 12:785586
S5380 7-Hydroxyflavone 7-Hydroxyflavone is a potent inhibitor of CYP1A1 with a Ki value of 0.015 μM and exhibits 6-fold greater selectivity for CYP1A1 over CYP1A2. It also has excellent antioxidant properties and great potential to be applied as medicines.
S5416 Metyrapone Metyrapone (NSC-25265, SU-4885) is an inhibitor of the enzyme steroid 11-beta-monooxygenase (CYP11B1) that inhibits adrenal steroid synthesis.
S5429 Diallyl sulfide Diallyl sulfide, a thioether found naturally in garlic, is a selective inhibitor and also a substrate of CYP2E1 with an IC50 of 17.3 μM. It has protective effects against alcohol- and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in many studies.
S5529 Galangin Galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone; Norizalpinin), a naturally occuring flavonoid found in herbs, is a well-known antioxidant and also an inhibitor of CYP1A1 activity and an agonist/antagonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.
S5658 Omeprazole Sodium Omeprazole Sodium is the sodium salt form of omeprazole, which is a proton pump inhibitor and suppresses gastric acid secretion. Omeprazole Sodium is a metabolism-dependent inhibitor (MDI) of CYP2C19.
Theranostics, 2021, 11(5):2364-2380
J Virol, 2021, JVI.00190-21
Biosci Rep, 2021, BSR20200842
S6437 Oxolamine Citrate Oxolamine (SKF-9976, AF-438) citrate, a cough suppressant, is an inhibitor of CYP2B1/2. Oxolamine citrate also exhibits anti-inflammatory effect.
S6594New Liarozole dihydrochloride Liarozole Dihydrochloride is identified as a modest inhibitor of P450 with IC50 of 2.2–6.0 μM and 260 nM for CYP26 and rat CYP17 respectively.
S6886 1-Aminobenzotriazole 1-Aminobenzotriazole (ABT, 3-Aminobenzotriazole, 1-Benzotriazolylamine, NSC 114498, NSC 656987) is a nonselective and irreversible inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. 1-Aminobenzotriazole is also a substrate and inhibitor of N-acetyltransferase (NAT).
S7456 Osilodrostat (LCI699) LCI699(Osilodrostat) is a potent inhibitor of 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B), an enzyme catalyzing the final step of cortisol synthesis.
Drug Metab Dispos, 2022, 50(2):114-127
J Biol Chem, 2021, S0021-9258(21)00587-1
S9163 Rhapontigenin Rhapontigenin (Protigenin), produced from rhapontin isolated from a methanol extract of Rheum undulatum roots by enzymatic transformation, is a selective inactivator of cytochrome P450 1A1 (IC50 = 400 nM).
S9241 Polygalaxanthone III Polygalaxanthone III is a natural product with the efficacy of tranquilization, glaangal, eliminating sputum and detumescence. Polygalaxanthone III inhibits chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation catalyzed by CYP2E1 with an IC50 of 50.56 μM.
S9250 Isosilybin Isosilybin (Silymarin, Silybin B, Isosilybinin, Q-100795) is a flavanolignan found in the extract of S. marianum fruits with antioxidant and anticancer activities. Isosilybin inhibits CYP3A4 induction with an IC50 of 74 μM.
S9257 Acetylshikonin Acetylshikonin is a biologically active compound with anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activity, which is isolated from the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizoma. It is a novel general P450 inhibitor with IC50 values of 1.4-4.0 μM for all tested P450s.
S9299 Ginsenoside F1 Ginsenoside F1, a pharmaceutical component of ginseng, is known to have antiaging, antioxidant, anticancer, and keratinocyte protective effects. Ginsenoside F1 exhibits competitive inhibition of the activity of CYP3A4 with Ki values of 67.8 ± 16.2 μM. Ginsenoside F1 also exhibited a weaker inhibition of the activity of CYP2D6.
S9442 Bergaptol Bergaptol (5-Hydroxypsoralen, 5-Hydroxyfuranocoumarin) is a natural furanocoumarin found in the essential oils of citrus including lemon and bergamot.Bergaptol is a potent inhibitors of debenzylation activity of CYP3A4 enzyme with an IC50 value of 24.92 μM.
A5216 Cytochrome P450 2D6 Rabbit Recombinant mAb Cytochrome P450 2D6 Rabbit Recombinant mAb detects endogenous level of total Cytochrome P450 2D6.
A5239 Alas1 Rabbit Recombinant mAb Alas1 Rabbit Recombinant mAb detects endogenous level of total Alas1.
A5282 Aromatase Rabbit Recombinant mAb Aromatase Rabbit Recombinant mAb detects endogenous level of total Aromatase.
S2271 Berberine chloride (NSC 646666) Berberine chloride (NSC 646666, Natural Yellow 18) is a quaternary ammonium salt from the group of isoquinoline alkaloids. Berberine activates caspase 3 and caspase 8, cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and the release of cytochrome c. Berberine chloride decreases the expression of c-IAP1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Berberine chloride induces apoptosis with sustained phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, as well as generation of the ROS. Berberine chloride is a dual topoisomerase I and II inhibitor. Berberine chloride is also a potential autophagy modulator.
Front Pharmacol, 2021, 12:632201
Molecules, 2021, 26(5)1210
Biology (Basel), 2021, 10(3)250
S4784 Phloracetophenone Phloracetophenone, or 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THA), the aglycone component of phloracetophenone glucoside, is a naturally occurring compound obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma comosa (Family Zingiberaceae). Phloracetophenone can stimulate CYP7A1 activity. Phloracetophenone induces cholestasis in rats mediated through Mrp2.
S5967 Berberine chloride hydrate Berberine (Natural Yellow 18) chloride hydrate is a quaternary ammonium salt from the group of isoquinoline alkaloids. Berberine activates caspase 3 and caspase 8, cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and the release of cytochrome c. Berberine chloride decreases the expression of c-IAP1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Berberine chloride induces apoptosis with sustained phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, as well as generation of the ROS. Berberine chloride is a dual topoisomerase I and II inhibitor. Berberine chloride is also a potential autophagy modulator.
Front Pharmacol, 2021, 12:632201
S6868 Alflutinib (AST2818) mesylate Alflutinib (AST2818, Furmonertinib) mesylate is a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor that inhibits both EGFR-sensitive mutations and T790M mutations. Alflutinib (AST2818), primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, is also a potent CYP3A4 inducer with EC50 of 0.25 μM.
S5969 Dicloxacillin Sodium hydrate Dicloxacillin Sodium hydrate (DLX, Dycill, Dynapen, Pathocil), a narrow-spectrum β-Lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class, induces drug-metabolizing CYP enzymes to a clinically relevant extent.
S6606 CDD3505 CDD3505 is used for elevating high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) by inducing hepatic cytochrome P450IIIA (CYP3A) activity.
S6594New Liarozole dihydrochloride Liarozole Dihydrochloride is identified as a modest inhibitor of P450 with IC50 of 2.2–6.0 μM and 260 nM for CYP26 and rat CYP17 respectively.