Pioglitazone HCl

Catalog No.S2046 Synonyms: AD-4833, U-72107E

For research use only.

Pioglitazone HCl (AD-4833, U-72107E) is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C8 and CYP3A4 enzymes. Pioglitazone HCl inhibits CYP2C8, CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 with Ki of 1.7 μM, 11.8 μM and 32.1 μM, respectively. Pioglitazone HCl is also a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonist with EC50 of 0.93 μM and 0.99 μM for human PPARγ and mouse PPARγ, respectively. Pioglitazone HCl inhibits mitochondrial iron uptake, lipid peroxidation, and subsequent ferroptosis.

Pioglitazone HCl Chemical Structure

CAS No. 112529-15-4

Selleck's Pioglitazone HCl has been cited by 10 Publications

2 Customer Reviews

Purity & Quality Control

Choose Selective P450 (e.g. CYP17) Inhibitors

Other P450 (e.g. CYP17) Products

Biological Activity

Description Pioglitazone HCl (AD-4833, U-72107E) is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C8 and CYP3A4 enzymes. Pioglitazone HCl inhibits CYP2C8, CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 with Ki of 1.7 μM, 11.8 μM and 32.1 μM, respectively. Pioglitazone HCl is also a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonist with EC50 of 0.93 μM and 0.99 μM for human PPARγ and mouse PPARγ, respectively. Pioglitazone HCl inhibits mitochondrial iron uptake, lipid peroxidation, and subsequent ferroptosis.
Targets
Ferroptosis [8] hPPARγ [1]
(Cell-free assay)
rPPARγ [6]
(Cell-free assay)
CYP2C8 [7]
(Cell-free assay)
CYP3A4 [7]
(Cell-free assay)
Click to View More Targets
0.93 μM(EC50) 0.99 μM(EC50) 1.7 μM(Ki) 11.8 μM(Ki)
In vitro

Pioglitazone inhibits LPS-induced iNOS expression and NO generation, and inhibition of iNOS is sufficient to protect dopaminergic neurons against LPS insult. Pioglitazone protects dopaminergic neurons against LPS insult at least via inhibiting iNOS expression and NO generation, which is potentially mediated via inhibition of p38 MAPK activity. Pioglitazone inhibits LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. [1]

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
COS cells NHvE[3pHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MX7UdoFve2O{aYD0bY9v[WxiYXP0bZZifGmxbjDpckBEV1NiY3XscJMh\XiycnXzd4lv\yCSUFHSJIdidW2jIHHu[EBTYFJiYXzwbIE8KH[jbIXld{BqdiC2aHWgdIFz\W62aHXz[ZMhcW6maXPheIV{KDl3JTDjc45ncWSnbnPlJIlvfGW{dnHsMEBGSzVyPUCuOFkh|ryP M13QeVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzFzOUC2Nlk{Lz5zMUmwOlI6OzxxYU6=
HepG2 cells MkjTSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MX3Q[ZJwgGm|b33lJJBzd2yrZnXyZZRweiCjY4TpeoF1\WRicnXj[ZB1d3JiZ3HtcYEh[WexbnnzeIlkKGGldHn2bZR6KGmwIFjldGczKGOnbHzzMEBGSzVyPUeuOkDPxE1? MWG8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8yODdzNEWwN{c,OTB5MUS1NFM9N2F-
CV-1 NYC5cYZnTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NVHx[mx7UW5idnn0do8hfHKjboPjdolxfGmxbnHsJIFkfGm4YYTpc44hd2ZiUHXyc5hqe2:vZTDwdo9tcW[ncnH0c5Ih[WO2aY\heIVlKHKnY3XweI9zKGejbX3hJEhRWEGUKTDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hS1ZvMTDj[YxteyxiRVO1NF0xNjZ7zszNMi=> MWi8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek85PTd4OUC3K|45PTd4OUC3QE9iRg>?
3T3-L1 NXrCRWpYTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NU\td2ltTW[oZXP0bZZmKGOxbnPlcpRz[XSrb36g[o9zKDVyJTDlcohidmOnbXXueEBw\iCrboP1cIlvNWmwZIXj[YQhfHKrZ3z5Z4VzcWSnIHHjZ5VufWyjdHnvckBqdiB|VEOtUFEh[2WubIOsJGVEPTB;MD6xOu69VS5? MY[8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek86PTl7MkSxK|46PTl7MkSxQE9iRg>?
CV-1 M{HpVGZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 M{TMbmFkfGm4YYTpc44hd2ZicHXyc5hqe2:vZTDwdo9tcW[ncnH0c5Ih[WO2aY\heIVlKHKnY3XweI9zKGejbX3hJI1m[XO3cnXkJIJ6KGmwZIXjeIlwdiCxZjC1NEUhd2ZibXH4bY12dSCjbHvhcIlv\SCyaH;zdIhifGG|ZTDhZ5Rqfmm2eTygeJJidnOoZXP0bY9vKGG|c3H5JIlvKEOYLUGgZ4VtdHNuIFXDOVA:OC53OEi4OO69VS5? NVTYfJVCRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxOUizOlYzOCd-OUizOlYzODxxYU6=
CV-1 NWT5VlhkTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= Mn:3UYF5cW2jbDDy[ZBwenSncjDhZ5Rqfmm2eTDh[4FqdnO2IHj1cYFvKFCncn;4bZNwdWVicILvcIln\XKjdH;yJIFkfGm4YYTl[EBz\WOncITvdkBo[W2vYTDHZYw1KGOqaX3ldolkKGmwIITyZY5{cWWwdHz5JJRz[W6|ZnXjeIVlKEOYLUGgZ4VtdHNiYomg[pVv[3Srb37hcEBie3OjeTygSWM2OD1yLkW4{txONg>? M4Owc|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzFzN{KwPFU1Lz5zMUeyNFg2PDxxYU6=
HEK293 NWfaeXB7TnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M3\nZWFod26rc4SgZYN1cX[rdImgZZQhWFCDUnfhcY1iKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDISWszQTNiY3XscJMh[XO|ZYPz[YQh[XNiaX7keYN1cW:wIH;mJJJm[2WydH;yJIlvfGW{YXP0bY9vKHerdHigd5Rmem:rZDDy[YNmeHSxcjDjc4FkfGm4YYTvdk0yKGK7IFXZSnAh[mG|ZXSgdoVxd3K2ZYKg[4Vv\SCjc4PhfS=> MWm8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8yPjZ6MEG1PUc,OTZ4OECxOVk9N2F-
HEK293 MWjGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NWLaRVU6SWexbnnzeEBi[3Srdnn0fUBifCCSUFHS[4FudWFiZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJGhGUzJ7MzDj[YxteyCjc4Pld5Nm\CCjczDpcoR2[3Srb36gc4YhemWlZYD0c5IhcW62ZYLhZ5Rqd25id3n0bEBz\XSrbn;p[EBZNXKnY3XweI9zKGGucHjhJIJ6KEW\RmCgZoF{\WRicnXwc5J1\XJiZ3Xu[UBie3OjeR?= MnL1QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTZ4OECxOVkoRjF4NkiwNVU6RC:jPh?=
CV1 NUDWR|lyTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NFrpVmZVemGwc3HjeIl3[XSrb36gc4YhWFCDUnfhcY1iKGmwIFPWNUBk\WyuczygSWM2OD1yLkW1{txONg>? MknFQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTZ6MkG3OlkoRjF4OEKxO|Y6RC:jPh?=
Cos7 M1zEZ2Z2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NU[3XHc1OTRiaILz MnztWJJidnOjY4TpeoF1cW:wIH;mJIh2dWGwIGDQRXJo[W2vYTDMRmQh\XiycnXzd4VlKGmwIHHmdolk[W5iZ4Ll[Y4hdW:wa3X5JGNwezdiY3XscJMh[29vdILhcpNn\WO2ZXSge4l1cCCodYPl[EBISUx2LVTCSEBi\nSncjCxOEBpenNiYomgSJVidC2JbH:gUJVkcW[ncnHz[UBz\XCxcoTldkBo\W6nIHHzd4F6NCCHQ{WwQVAvO87:TT6= M4DuS|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJyM{C3PVgyLz5{MEOwO|k5OTxxYU6=
3T3L1 MUnGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NYD6W4tlOTByIIXtc4wwVA>? NW\VRZhpUW6lcnXhd4UhcW5iUGDBVodidW2jIH3SUmEhdGW4ZXzzJIlvKG2xdYPlJFNVO0xzIHPlcIx{KGG2IEGwNEB2dW:uL1ygZpkhWlRvUFPS NGPBSZA9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{MEO5NlY1PSd-MkCzPVI3PDV:L3G+
CHO MlT5SpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NHvGcXlC[3SrdnH0bY9vKG:oIFfhcFQufGGpZ3XkJIh2dWGwIGDQRXJo[W2vYTDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hS0iRIHPlcIx{KGK7IHz1Z4ln\XKjc3WgdoVxd3K2ZYKg[4Vv\SCjc4PhfUwhTUN3ME2wMlE1|ryPLh?= M1;rSlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJyNkW2OFk1Lz5{ME[1OlQ6PDxxYU6=
HEK293T M{T2VGZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NHXrXIQyKHWP M1GyZVI1KGi{cx?= NFSyZppR[XK2aXHsJIFod26rc4SgZYN1cX[rdImgZZQhcHWvYX6gVHBCWmejbX3hMWxDTCCneIDy[ZN{\WRiaX6gTGVMOjl|VDDj[YxteyCjc4Pld5Nm\CCjczDpcoR2[3Srb36gc4YhemWlZYD0c5IhfHKjboPhZ5RqfmG2aX;uJIF1KDFidV2gZYZ1\XJiMkSgbJJ{KGK7IHz1Z4ln\XKjc3WgdoVxd3K2ZYKg[4Vv\SCjc4PhfS=> Mo\wQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjFyM{CyOlMoRjJzMEOwNlY{RC:jPh?=
COS-1 M3[0fGZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 Moq2RYdwdmm|dDDhZ5Rqfmm2eTDheEBpfW2jbjDQVGFT\2GvbXGgcIlo[W6mIHLpcoRqdmdiZH;tZYlvKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDDU3MuOSClZXzsd{Bkdy22cnHud4Zm[3SnZDD3bZRpKEejbESgZpkhdHWlaX\ldoF{\SC{ZYDvdpRmeiCpZX7lJIF{e2G7LDDFR|UxRTBwM{pOwG0v MWG8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOTF|ME[0PUc,OjFzM{C2OFk9N2F-
CHO NI\NSHZHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NEHib|kzPCCqcoO= MYPQZZJ1cWGuIHHnc45qe3RiYXP0bZZqfHliYYSgbJVu[W5iUGDBVodidW2jIHX4dJJme3OnZDDpckBEUE9iY3XscJMh[29vdILhcpNn\WO2ZXSge4l1cCCJYXy0MZJme3CxboPpeoUhdHWlaX\ldoF{\SC{ZYDvdpRmeiCybHHzcYllKGGodHXyJFI1KGi{czDifUB1emGwc3HjeIl3[XSrb36gZZN{[XluIFXDOVA:OC5|Od88UU4> MYm8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOTN5N{i3OUc,OjF|N{e4O|U9N2F-
COS7 M4Hhb2Z2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MWjNc4R2dGG2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJHBRSVKpYX3tZU1NSkRiZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJIFnemmlYX6g[5Jm\W5ibX;ub4V6KEORU{egZ4VtdHNiY3:teJJidnOoZXP0[YQhf2m2aDDHZYw1KGG|c3Xzd4VlKGG|IHHjeIl3[XSrb36gc4YhfHKjboPhZ5RqfmG2aX;uJIFkfGm4aYT5JIJ6KGy3Y3nm[ZJie2ViYYPzZZktKEWFNUC9NE4{|ryPLh?= NH75TW89[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{MUi3N|A4OCd-MkG4O|MxPzB:L3G+
Sf21 M37uUWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NXfXO45mUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCEU1XQJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCybHHzcYEhdWWvYoLhcoUhfmW|aXPs[ZMhd2ZiU3[yNUBk\WyuczDhd5Nme3OnZDDhd{BqdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIFHUVE1l\XCnbnTlcpQhYzOKXYTheZJw[2ixbHH0[UB2eHSja3WsJGlEPTB;MD6z{txONg>? NYrGUVhQRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkG5OlU3OjNpPkKxPVY2PjJ|PD;hQi=>
Sf21 MX;GeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NIDUcoNKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIGPwdoFofWVvRHH3cIV6KHKjdDDCd4VxKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDwcIF{dWFibXXtZpJidmVidnXzbYNt\XNib3[gV4YzOSClZXzsd{Bie3Onc4Pl[EBieyCrbnjpZol1cW:wIH;mJGFVWC2mZYDlcoRmdnRiW{PIYZRifXKxY3jvcIF1\SC3cIThb4UtKEmFNUC9Nu69VS5? NUfjZlJSRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkG5OlU3OjNpPkKxPVY2PjJ|PD;hQi=>
HepG2 NEfkR|hHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MUKyNEBpenN? MXLB[49vcXO2IHHjeIl3cXS7IHH0JGdCVDRvdHHn[4VlKGi3bXHuJHBRSVKpYX3tZUBtcWejbnSgZolv\GmwZzDkc41icW5iZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJGhmeEd{IHPlcIx{KGG|c3Xzd4VlKGG|IITyZY5{[WO2aY\heIlwdiCjZoTldkAzOCCqcoOgZpkh[mW2YT3nZYxi[3Sxc3nkZZNmKHKncH;yeIVzKGenbnWgZZN{[XluIFXDOVA:OC53N988UU4> MonqQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjJ|NEG1O|MoRjJ{M{SxOVc{RC:jPh?=
HEK293 NXr5VopETnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NVHjdFNbOThiaILz NULlSFBEXHKjboPhZ5RqfmG2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJGdCVDRvZoXz[YQhWFCDUnfhcY1iKGyrZ3Hu[EBjcW6maX7nJIRwdWGrbjD0doFve2[nY4Tl[EBqdiCKRVuyPVMh[2WubIOgZYZ1\XJiMUigbJJ{KGK7IHT1ZYwhdHWlaX\ldoF{\SC{ZYDvdpRmeiCpZX7lJIF{e2G7LDDFR|UxRTBwON88UU4> Mnq4QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjNzMEK4PVEoRjJ|MUCyPFkyRC:jPh?=
COS7 M1TKNmZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NE\QVWxVemGwc3HjeIl3[XSrb36gc4YhT0GOND3meZNm\CCqdX3hckBRWEGUZ3HtcYEhdGmpYX7kJIJqdmSrbneg[I9u[WmwIITyZY5{\mWldHXkJIlvKGGocnnjZY4h\3KnZX6gcY9vc2W7IFPPV|ch[2WubIOgZpkhdHWlaX\ldoF{\SC{ZYDvdpRmeiCpZX7lJIF{e2G7LDDFR|UxRTBwMt88UU4> NXLE[2xmRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkOxN|A6PjRpPkKzNVMxQTZ2PD;hQi=>
THP1 M2LuOWFvfGmrbn\sZY1u[XSxcomgZZN{[Xl? MmPUNUBpeg>? NV;C[Ip4SW62aXnu[oxidW2jdH;yfUBi[3Srdnn0fUBqdiCqdX3hckBVUFBzIHPlcIx{KGG|c3Xzd4VlKGG|IHnubIljcXSrb36gc4YhWE2DLXnu[JVk\WRiTVPQMVEhe2WlcnX0bY9vKHC{ZXnuZ5Vj[XSnZDDmc5IhOSCqcjDwdolweiCSTVGtZ4hidGynbnflJI1m[XO3cnXkJIFnfGW{IES4JIhzeyCkeTDFUGlUSSxiSVO1NF0yQC56NN88UU4> NEDB[mU9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{M{ixNVA6Oid-MkO4NVExQTJ:L3G+
THP1 M1LuVmFvfGmrbn\sZY1u[XSxcomgZZN{[Xl? M3O5Z|IhcHK| NF\LPJdCdnSraX7mcIFudWG2b4L5JIFkfGm4aYT5JIlvKGi3bXHuJHRJWDFiY3XscJMh[XO|ZYPz[YQh[XNiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDv[kBRVUFvaX7keYNm\CCPQ2CtNUB{\WO{ZYTpc44hcW6ldXLheIVlKG[xcjCyJIhzeyCycnnvdkB1dyCSTVGgZ4hidGynbnflJI1m[XO3cnXkJIFnfGW{IEeyJIhzeyCkeTDFUGlUSSxiSVO1NF0yQC54zszNMi=> MWS8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDV|MUKyO{c,OjR3M{GyNlc9N2F-
HEK293 M{TCPWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MmfrNVAhfU1? MYOyOEBpenN? NIDu[GFVemGwc3HjeIl3[XSrb36gc4YhWFCDUj3nZY1u[SBqdX7rco94diCxcnnnbY4qKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDISWszQTNiY3XscJMh[XRiMUCgeW0h[W[2ZYKgNlQhcHK|IHL5JIx2[2moZYLhd4UhemWyb4L0[ZIh\2WwZTDhd5NigQ>? MWS8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDh7MEC5NEc,OjR6OUCwPVA9N2F-
HEK293 M4r6RmZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MUexPEBpenN? MkTpRYdwdmm|dDDhZ5Rqfmm2eTDheEBpfW2jbjDQVGFT\2GvbXGg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKEiHS{K5N{Bk\WyuczDpcoN2[mG2ZXSg[o9zKDF6IHjyd{BjgSCudXPp[oVz[XOnIILldI9zfGW{IHflcoUh[XO|YYmsJGVEPTB;MD6yNe69VS5? NXnx[4JMRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWzN|M5PTNpPkK1N|M{QDV|PD;hQi=>
COS7 NX\mVHliTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M1fKT3Rz[W6|YXP0bZZifGmxbjDv[kBpfW2jbjDQVGFT\2GvbXGg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKEGocnnjZY4h\3KnZX6gcY9vc2W7IFPPV|ch[2WubIOgbY5kfWKjdHXkJI93\XKwaXfoeEBjgSCmdXHsMYdtdyCudXPp[oVz[XOnIILldI9zfGW{IHflcoUh[XO|YYmsJGVEPTB;MD6y{txONg>? NFXoepo9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkW5OVc1QSd-Mk[1PVU4PDl:L3G+
THP1 NH;2WmdHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MVGxNEB2VQ>? MU[yOEBpenN? NW\lT5pRXXC{ZXf1cIF1cW:wIH;mJGFDS0FzIH3SUmEh\XiycnXzd4lwdiCrbjDoeY1idiCWSGCxJINmdGy|IHH0JFExKHWPIHHmeIVzKDJ2IHjyd{BjgSCzUFPSJI1mfGixZDDy[YxifGm4ZTD0c{Bkd262cn;s MUK8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPzJ{MEC2OUc,Ojd{MkCwOlU9N2F-
THP1 NWnDTJZDTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NXrT[|AzOTBidV2= MXKyOEBpenN? MVnVdJJm\3WuYYTpc44hd2ZiQVLDS|EhdVKQQTDlfJBz\XO|aX;uJIlvKGi3bXHuJHRJWDFiY3XscJMh[XRiMUCgeW0h[W[2ZYKgNlQhcHK|IHL5JJFRS1JibXX0bI9lKHKnbHH0bZZmKHSxIHPvcpRzd2x? NHjNc2w9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{N{KyNFA3PSd-MkeyNlAxPjV:L3G+
COS7 MVjGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MnvqOFIhcHK| MmTZWJJidnOjY4TpeoF1cW:wIH;mJGdCVDRvZoXz[YQhcHWvYX6gVHBCWmejbX3hJIxq\2GwZDDibY5lcW6pIHTvcYFqdiCneIDy[ZN{\WRiaX6gRYZzcWOjbjDndoVmdiCvb37r[ZkhS0:VNzDj[YxteyCjZoTldkA1OiCqcoOgZpkh\HWjbDDseYNq\mW{YYPlJJJmeG:{dHXyJIdmdmViYYPzZZktKEWFNUC9NE42|ryPLh?= NIT1fGg9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{N{W2NFI5Oid-Mke1OlAzQDJ:L3G+
COS7 M2rIXWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MXW0NkBpenN? NGfK[GVVemGwc3HjeIl3[XSrb36gZZQhT2GuNDDmeZNm\CCSUFHS[4FudWFiTFLEJEh2dmuwb4fuJI9zcWerbjmg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKEGocnnjZY4h\3KnZX6gcY9vc2W7IFPPV|ch[2WubIOgZYZ1\XJiNEKgbJJ{KGK7IHz1Z4ln\XKjc3WgZZN{[XluIFXDOVA:OC5|Mt88UU4> M4jzSlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ5NU[5NVk2Lz5{N{W2PVE6PTxxYU6=
COS7 NFrYcplHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MXe0NkBpenN? NUHDWpRtXHKjboPhZ5RqfmG2aX;uJI9nKEejbESg[pV{\WRiaIXtZY4hWFCDUnfhcY1iKEyERDDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hSW[{aXPhckBoemWnbjDtc45s\XliQ1;TO{Bk\WyuczDh[pRmeiB2MjDodpMh[nliZIXhcEBtfWOrZnXyZZNmKHKncH;yeIVzKGenbnWgZZN{[XluIFXDOVA:OC5|ON88UU4> NHjJZ3k9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{N{mxPFk6PCd-Mke5NVg6QTR:L3G+
PC3 Mnz1SpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? M17ucFUxKHWP NHK4TYozPCCqcoO= MWrJcoNz\WG|ZTDpckBxOjFqV1HGNUkheHKxdHXpckBmgHC{ZYPzbY9vKGmwIHj1cYFvKFCFMzDj[YxteyCjdDC1NEB2VSCrbnP1ZoF1\WRiZn;yJFI1KGi{czDifUBY\XO2ZYLuJIJtd3RiYX7hcJl{cXN? NEDCdGk9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{OEO5OVIzOCd-MkizPVUzOjB:L3G+
MDA-MB-231 NF3nNoNHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NUf4UINNPTBidV2= MlzjNlQhcHK| M2TCN2lv[3KnYYPlJIlvKHB{MTjXRWYyMSCycn;0[YlvKGW6cILld5Nqd25iaX6gbJVu[W5iTVTBMW1DNTJ|MTDj[YxteyCjdDC1NEB2VSCrbnP1ZoF1\WRiZn;yJFI1KGi{czDifUBY\XO2ZYLuJIJtd3RiYX7hcJl{cXN? MUS8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zQDN7NUKyNEc,Ojh|OUWyNlA9N2F-
HEK293 MVzGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NVmzS4J2OjRiaILz NYLqWlRJXHKjboPhZ5RqfmG2aX;uJIFkfGm4aYT5JIF1KEejbESg[pV{\WRiZoXscEBt\W6pdHigbJVu[W5iUGDBVodidW2jIFzCSEBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iSFXLNlk{KGOnbHzzJIFnfGW{IEK0JIhzeyCkeTDseYNq\mW{YYPlJJJmeG:{dHXyJIdmdmViYYPzZZktKEWFNUC9NU4y|ryPLh?= M{XRSVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ6NE[1NFk6Lz5{OES2OVA6QTxxYU6=
HEK293 MWLGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MnLjOEBpenN? MkPpWJJidnO{ZYDy[ZN{cW:wIHHjeIl3cXS7IHH0JIh2dWGwIGDQRXJo[W2vYTDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hUEWNMkmzJINmdGy|IHHzd4V{e2WmIHHzJIlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiVF7GZYxxcGFiaX7keYNm\CCQRj3rZZBx[UJicILvcY91\XJiYXP0bZZqfHlicILleJJm[XSnZDDmc5IhPCCqcoOg[o9tdG:5ZXSgZpkhXE6IYXzwbIEhe3SrbYXsZZRqd25iYX\0[ZIhOyCqcoOgZpkhdHWlaX\ldoF{\SC{ZYDvdpRmeiCpZX7lJIF{e2G7LDDJR|UxRTJ{zszNMi=> MYG8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zQDR4NUC5PUc,Ojh2NkWwPVk9N2F-
SCC15 M2XpNmN6fG:2b4jpZ4l1gSCjc4PhfS=> MUK1NEB2VQ>? MWKyOEBpenN? M4S4UmN6fG:2b4jpZ4l1gSCjZ3HpcpN1KGi3bXHuJHNESzF3IHPlcIx{KHS{YX7z[oVkfGWmIIfpeIghWFCDUnHsdIhiKHOrUl7BJIF{e2W|c3XkJIF{KHKnZIXjeIlwdiCrbjDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjdDC1NEB2VSCjZoTldkAzPCCqcoOgZpkhemW|YYr1dolvKHKnZIXjeIlwdiCjc4PhfS=> NGXo[I49[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{OUCzNVA3Oyd-MkmwN|ExPjN:L3G+
SCC15 NGrJVFZEgXSxdH;4bYNqfHliYYPzZZk> MnPGOVAhfU1? MUSyOEBpenN? NV7lUWo1S3m2b4TvfIlkcXS7IHHnZYlve3RiaIXtZY4hW0OFMUWgZ4VtdHNidILhcpNn\WO2ZXSge4l1cCCSUFHSZoV1[SC|aWLORUBie3Onc4Pl[EBieyC{ZXT1Z5Rqd25iaX6gZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYSgOVAhfU1iYX\0[ZIhOjRiaILzJIJ6KHKnc3H6eZJqdiC{ZXT1Z5Rqd25iYYPzZZk> MYi8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zQTB|MUC2N{c,OjlyM{GwOlM9N2F-
HepG2 M{f0VWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MWOyOEBpenN? MUHB[49vcXO2IHHjeIl3cXS7IHH0JHBRSVKpYX3tZUBqdiCqdX3hckBJ\XCJMjDj[YxteyCjc4Pld5Nm\CCjczDhZ5RqfmG2aX;uJI9nKFCSUlWgbY5kfWKjdHXkJIZweiB{NDDodpMh[nliZIXhcEBtfWOrZnXyZZNmKHKncH;yeIVzKGenbnWgZZN{[XluIFXDOVA:OC5{NN88UU4> NUD3[4FiRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxM{CwNFE5PDZpPkOwNFAyQDR4PD;hQi=>
HEK293BENA NUjKZVhCTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NFzIXlczPCCqcoO= NHLLV2lVemGwc3HjeIl3[XSrb36gc4YhT0GOND3meZNm\CCqdX3hckBRWEGUZ3HtcYEhfHKjboPm[YN1\WRiaX6gTGVMOjl|QlXORUBk\WyuczDh[pRmeiB{NDDodpMh[nlic4TlZYR6KGeubz3seYNq\mW{YYPlJJJmeG:{dHXyJIdmdmViYYPzZZktKEWFNUC9Nk4xPTQQvF2u NFj5WHY9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9|MEO1NVk{Oyd-M{CzOVE6OzN:L3G+
HEK293 MXPGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M{\TdFE5KGi{cx?= NGTO[WlVemGwc3HjeIl3[XSrb36gc4YhcHWvYX6g[pVtdCCuZX7neIghWFCDUnfhcY1iKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDISWszQTNiY3XscJMh[W[2ZYKgNVghcHK|IHL5JIx2[2moZYLhd4UhemWyb4L0[ZIh\2WwZTDiZZNm\CCudX3pcoV{[2WwY3WgZZN{[XluIFXDOVA:OC5zzszNMi=> MonBQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOzB|NkK3N|koRjNyM{[yO|M6RC:jPh?=
293H MoPoSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MVyxOkBpenN? M1PmenRz[W6|YXP0bZZifGmxbjDv[kBISUx2LVTCSEBnfXOnZDDoeY1idiCSUFHS[4FudWFibHnnZY5lKGKrbnTpcoch\G:vYXnuJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCXQWOtZoxiKEiHTDCyPVNJKGOnbHzzJJBz\WmwY4XiZZRm\CCob4KgNVYhcHK|IH\vcIxwf2WmIHL5JGZTTVRic4Xid5Rz[XSnIHHk[Il1cW:wIHHu[EBu\WG|dYLl[EBi\nSncjCyJIhzeyCkeTDUVk1HWkWWIHHzd4F6NCCHQ{WwQVAvODl6zszNMi=> NHXFOZE9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9|MESyPVA6Pyd-M{C0NlkxQTd:L3G+
3T3L1 NInSO2lHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MoCwNVAhfU1? MnS4NlQhcHK| MVzB[49vcXO2IHHjeIl3cXS7IHH0JHBRSVKpYX3tZUBqdiCvb4Xz[UA{XDOOMTDj[YxteyCjc4Pld5Nm\CCjczDpcoNz\WG|ZTDpckBCWDFibWLORUBmgHC{ZYPzbY9vKGG2IEGwJJVOKGGodHXyJFI1KGi{czDifUBUYUKUIHfy[YVvKGS7ZTDiZZNm\CCUVD3QR3Ih[W6jbInzbZM> M1q3[VxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzNyNUm0OFMzLz5|MEW5OFQ{OjxxYU6=
3T3L1 NHP5U5RHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NXrCNmhMOTBidV2= MoThNlQhcHK| Mnv3RYdwdmm|dDDhZ5Rqfmm2eTDheEBRWEGUZ3HtcYEhcW5ibX;1d4UhO1R|TEGgZ4VtdHNiYYPz[ZN{\WRiYYOgbY5kemWjc3WgbY4hS0R|NjDtVm5CKGW6cILld5Nqd25iYYSgNVAhfU1iYX\0[ZIhOjRiaILzJIJ6KFO\QmKg[5Jm\W5iZInlJIJie2WmIGLUMXBEWiCjbnHsfZNqew>? NY\UWGdmRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxM{C1PVQ1OzJpPkOwOVk1PDN{PD;hQi=>
3T3L1 NWPS[41wTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NInvSJAyOCC3TR?= NIPDUZEzPCCqcoO= NFHRRVNC\2:waYP0JIFkfGm4aYT5JIF1KFCSQWLnZY1u[SCrbjDtc5V{\SB|VEPMNUBk\WyuczDhd5Nme3OnZDDhd{BqdmO{ZXHz[UBqdiCJbIX0OEBuWk6DIHX4dJJme3Orb36gZZQhOTBidV2gZYZ1\XJiMkSgbJJ{KGK7IGPZRnIh\3KnZX6g[JlmKGKjc3XkJHJVNVCFUjDhcoFtgXOrcx?= NWm0XXQ1RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxM{C1PVQ1OzJpPkOwOVk1PDN{PD;hQi=>
3T3L1 NIf2O2tHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MXmxNEB2VQ>? MU[yOEBpenN? NXHLVGZTSWexbnnzeEBi[3Srdnn0fUBifCCSUFHS[4FudWFiaX6gcY92e2ViM2SzUFEh[2WubIOgZZN{\XO|ZXSgZZMhcW6lcnXhd4UhcW5iYXTpdI9v\WO2aX6gcXJPSSCneIDy[ZN{cW:wIHH0JFExKHWPIHHmeIVzKDJ2IHjyd{BjgSCVWVLSJIdz\WWwIHT5[UBj[XOnZDDSWE1RS1JiYX7hcJl{cXN? NVnMd2pERGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxM{C1PVQ1OzJpPkOwOVk1PDN{PD;hQi=>
stem cells NEOwXZpHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M1fxV|Uh\GG7cx?= NGTjdYdKdmS3Y4Tpc44hd2ZiYXTpdI9o\W6nc3nzJIlvKGi3bXHuJIJwdmVibXHydo94NWSncnn2[YQhdWW|ZX7jbJlu[Wxic4TlcUBk\WyuczDhd5Nme3OnZDDhd{BqdmO{ZXHz[UBqdiCjZHnwc45m[3SrbjDwdo9lfWO2aX;uJI1m[XO3cnXkJI9vKGSjeTC1JIlvKHC{ZYPlcoNmKG:oIFnEXEBjgSCHTFnTRUwhTUN3ME2wMlM2|ryPLh?= NIPGdoY9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9|ME[3NlY6QCd-M{C2O|I3QTh:L3G+
HEK293T NUKyN|k{TnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NEO3cmwyQCCqcoO= NUfETolzXHKjboPhZ5RqfmG2aX;uJI9nKG[3bHygcIVv\3SqIHj1cYFvKFCSQWLnZY1u[TJiZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJGhGUzJ7M2SgZ4VtdHNiY3:t[ZhxemW|c3nu[{BRWFKHIHHmeIVzKDF6IHjyd{BjgSCudXPp[oVz[XOnIILldI9zfGW{IHflcoUh[XO|YYmsJGVEPTB;MD6yOe69VS5? M4fwXVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzNyNke2O|QyLz5|ME[3Olc1OTxxYU6=
HEK293T MlPQSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NF7RVFMyQCCqcoO= NVj4WZdkXHKjboPhZ5RqfmG2aX;uJI9nKGOqaX3ldolkKEejbESgfYVie3RiRFLEJIZ2e2WmLWDQRXJo[W2vYTDMRmQhMHWwa37ve44hd3KrZ3nuLUBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iSFXLNlk{XCClZXzsd{Bkdy2neIDy[ZN{cW6pIGDQVmUh[W[2ZYKgNVghcHK|IHL5JIx2[2moZYLhd4UhemWyb4L0[ZIh\2WwZTDhd5NigSxiRVO1NF0xNjN3zszNMi=> NFrsR4c9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9|ME[3Olc1OSd-M{C2O|Y4PDF:L3G+
HepG2 NX3LUllOTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M4DNelMxKHWP M1LWbGJqdmSrbnegZYZncW6rdImgeI8hVkGIMTCoeY5sdm:5bjDvdolocW5rIHX4dJJme3OnZDDpckBpfW2jbjDI[ZBIOiClZXzsd{Bie3Onc4Pl[EBieyCrbnjpZol1cW:wIH;mJI1qfG:laH;u[JJq[WxicnXzdIlz[XSrb36gZZQhOzBidV2= NF;4PFY9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9|MEe3NFE2PCd-M{C3O|AyPTR:L3G+
HepG2 M3LUPGZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MYGzNEB2VQ>? MoPwRolv\GmwZzDh[oZqdmm2eTD0c{BPSUZzIHnuJIh2dWGwIFjldGczKGOnbHzzJIF{e2W|c3XkJIF{KGmwaHnibZRqd25ib3[gcYl1d2Oqb37kdolidCC{ZYPwbZJifGmxbjDheEA{OCC3TR?= NGLycIg9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9|MEe3NFE2PCd-M{C3O|AyPTR:L3G+
COS7 MWXGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MVyzPUBpenN? Mlm4WJJidnOjY4TpeoF1cW:wIH;mJGdidDRvZoXz[YQhcHWvYX6gVHBCWmejbX3hJJRz[W6|ZnXjeIVlKGmwIFPPV|ch[2WubIOgZ48ufHKjboPm[YN1\WRid3n0bEBxT0GONT3UT{1xT0x|IHHu[EBxWmWwbnnscIEuS02YIHnuZ5Vj[XSnZDDmc5IhOzliaILzJIJ6KGS3YXygcJVkcW[ncnHz[UBz\XCxcoTldkBie3OjeTygSWM2OD1zLkVOwG0v NVTlZW5tRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxM{G2OFgyOjVpPkOxOlQ5OTJ3PD;hQi=>
K562 M1X3eGZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 M2njelExKHWP NETzeIc4OiCqcoO= M2CzNGlv\HWldHnvckBw\iC|ZX7zbZRqgmG2aX;uJJRwKGmvYYTpcoljNWmwZIXj[YQh[3m2b4TvfIlkcXS7IHnuJIlu[XSrbnniMZJme2m|dHHueEBpfW2jbjDLOVYzNUmPQWvyYUBk\WyuczDhd5Nme3OnZDDhd{BqdmS3Y4Tpc44hd2ZiY3XscEBl\WG2aDDheEAyOCC3TTDh[pRmeiB5MjDodpMhcW5icILld4Vv[2Vib3[gNUB2VSCrbXH0bY5q[iCkeTDwdo9xcWSrdX2gbY9lcWSnL2TybZRwdi2[MUCwJIR6\SCkYYPl[EBHSUOVIHHuZYx6e2m| NWHmOFVFRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxM{G2OFgyOjVpPkOxOlQ5OTJ3PD;hQi=>
In vivo

Pioglitazone administered orally (0.3-3 mg/kg/d for 7 days) dose dependently reduces hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia in male fatty rats. Pioglitazone improves glucose tolerance and augmentes the glycemic response to exogenous insulin and clearance of plasma triglyceride in rats. [2] Pioglitazone-treated transgenic mice reveals improved muscle strength and body weight, exhibits a delayed disease onset, and survives significantly longer than nontreated SOD1-G93A mice. [3] Pioglitazone markedly decreases hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucoseintolerance characterized as insulin resistant states in these rats and mice. Pioglitazone potentiates insulin-mediated glucose metabolism in the diaphragm and adipose tissues of yellow KK mice and enhanced the glycemic response to exogenous insulin in Zucker fatty rats. [4] Pioglitazone results in a reduction in the number of activated microglia and reactive astrocytes in the hippocampus and cortex of APPV717I transgenic mice. Pioglitazone decreases beta-secretase-1 (BACE1) mRNA and protein levels in APPV717I transgenic mice. [5]

Protocol (from reference)

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 392.9
Formula

C19H20N2O3S.HCl

CAS No. 112529-15-4
Storage 3 years -20°C powder
2 years -80°C in solvent
Smiles CCC1=CN=C(C=C1)CCOC2=CC=C(C=C2)CC3C(=O)NC(=O)S3.Cl

In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)

Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)

mg/kg g μL

Step 2: Enter the in vivo formulation (This is only the calculator, not formulation. Please contact us first if there is no in vivo formulation at the solubility Section.)

% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O
%DMSO %

Calculation results:

Working concentration: mg/ml;

Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO ( Master liquid concentration mg/mL, Please contact us first if the concentration exceeds the DMSO solubility of the batch of drug. )

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300, mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80, mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O, mix and clarify.

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next add μL Corn oil, mix and clarify.

Note: 1. Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2. Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such
as vortex, ultrasound or hot water bath can be used to aid dissolving.

Molarity Calculator

Mass Concentration Volume Molecular Weight

Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment Interventions Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT04501406 Recruiting Drug: Pioglitazone|Other: Placebo Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM)|Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis University of Florida|National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) December 15 2020 Phase 2
NCT04535700 Recruiting Drug: Pioglitazone 30 mg|Other: standard of care Type 2 Diabetes Fundacion para la Investigacion Biomedica del Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal September 18 2020 Phase 4
NCT00904046 Recruiting Drug: Pioglitazone|Drug: Placebo Uric Acid Kidney Stone Disease University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center|National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)|Takeda Pharmaceuticals North America Inc. September 5 2019 Not Applicable
NCT04671056 Completed Drug: MGL-3196|Drug: Pioglitazone 15mg Healthy Madrigal Pharmaceuticals Inc. November 9 2018 Phase 1
NCT03501277 Completed Drug: Alogliptin|Drug: Pioglitazone|Drug: SYR-322-4833 BL Healthy Volunteers Takeda May 26 2018 Phase 1
NCT03471117 Recruiting Drug: Pioglitazone|Other: Placebo Chronic Kidney Diseases The University of Texas at Arlington|University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas April 1 2018 Phase 4

(data from https://clinicaltrials.gov, updated on 2022-01-17)

Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

Handling Instructions

Tel: +1-832-582-8158 Ext:3
If you have any other enquiries, please leave a message.

* Indicates a Required Field

Please enter your name.
Please enter your email. Please enter a valid email address.
Please write something to us.
Tags: buy Pioglitazone HCl | Pioglitazone HCl supplier | purchase Pioglitazone HCl | Pioglitazone HCl cost | Pioglitazone HCl manufacturer | order Pioglitazone HCl | Pioglitazone HCl distributor