For research use only.

Catalog No.S2187 Synonyms: CI-1011, PD-148515

13 publications

Avasimibe Chemical Structure

CAS No. 166518-60-1

Avasimibe (CI-1011, PD-148515) inhibits ACAT with IC50 of 3.3 μM, also inhibits human P450 isoenzymes CYP2C9, CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 with IC50 of 2.9 μM, 13.9 μM and 26.5 μM, respectively.

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Selleck's Avasimibe has been cited by 13 publications

5 Customer Reviews

  • a, b, Melanoma-bearing mice were treated with avasimibe (Ava) or DMSO control (5 times) (control, n=9; avasimibe, n=8). c-e, STORM analysis of TCR clustering of tumour-infiltrating CD8+ T cells. c, Representative images. d, Ripley’s K-function analysis of TCR molecules. e, The r value at the maximal L(r)-r value of Ripley’s K-function curves (control, n=100; avasimibe, n=85). f, g, A combined therapy (avasimibe and anti-PD-1) or monotherapies (avasimibe or anti-PD-1) in treating melanoma (n=10). Avasimibe, 5 times; anti-PD-1, 4 times. h, i, Cytokine/granule productions of PD-1hi and PD-1lo tumour-infiltrating CD8+ T cells (control, n=12; avasimibe, n=11).

    Nature, 2016, 531(7596):651-5.. Avasimibe purchased from Selleck.

  • (d) Representative images of MIA PaCa-2 cells migrated through Transwell membrane. The cells were treated with DMSO or 2.5 μM avasimibe, stained with 10 μg/ml PI for 30 min. Scale bar: 20 μm. (e) Quantification of the number of migrated and invaded cells treated with avasimibe at 0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 μM or stably transfected with control shRNA or ACAT-1 shRNA. Cell number was counted using ImageJ cell counter function. The data are shown as means+s.e.m.; n⩾6; *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001.

    Oncogene, 2016, 35(50):6378-6388. Avasimibe purchased from Selleck.

  • The adoptive immunotherapy with CD8+ T cells in combination with avasimibe. (C) The H&E staining of tumor tissues from different treated groups.

    Nanomedicine, 2018, 14(8):2541-2550. Avasimibe purchased from Selleck.

  • Immunoblotting of β-actin, Akt, and p-Akt in G3K cells treated with avasimibe at indicated concentrations for 48 hours.

    PLoS One, 2018, 13(2):e0193318. Avasimibe purchased from Selleck.

  • CTL cytotoxicity measured by the LDH assay (n=3). CTLs were generated as described in Methods from the spleens harvested from mice subjected to PBS, avasimibe, CSC-DC vaccine, or CSC-DC vaccine combined with avasimibe. Target cells were ALDH+CSC SCC7. Data were analyzed by t test. Error bars denote SEM; * P<0.05 compared with PBS group and no tumor resection group; # P<0.05 compared with all other groups.

    Med Sci Monit, 2017, 23:4471-4476. Avasimibe purchased from Selleck.

Purity & Quality Control

Choose Selective P450 (e.g. CYP17) Inhibitors

Biological Activity

Description Avasimibe (CI-1011, PD-148515) inhibits ACAT with IC50 of 3.3 μM, also inhibits human P450 isoenzymes CYP2C9, CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 with IC50 of 2.9 μM, 13.9 μM and 26.5 μM, respectively.
CYP2C9 [5]
(Human Hepatic Microsomes)
ACAT [1]
(IC-21 macrophages)
CYP1A2 [5]
(Human Hepatic Microsomes)
CYP2C19 [5]
(Human Hepatic Microsomes)
2.9 μM 3.3 μM 13.9 μM 26.5 μM
In vitro

Avasimibe at concentration of 1μg/mL causes reduction of Total cholesterol (TC) and Esterified cholesterol (EC) through inhibiting LDL binding and decreasing scavenger receptor numbers during foam cell formation in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMMs). Avasimibe at concentration of 2μg/mL enhances cholesterol efflux from established HMM foam cells preincubating with 10μg/ml LDL. [1] Avasimibe inhibits Lipoprotein(a) accumulation in the culture media of primary monkey hepatocyte in a dose-dependent manner with 11.9% -31.3% inhibition, the change is mainly associated with decreased ApoA. [2] Avasimibe incubating at concentration of 10 nM, 1 μM, and 10 μM for 24 hours in HepG2 cells reduce ApoB secretion into media by 25%, 27%, and 43%, respectively. Avasimibe decreases ApoB secretion by enhanced intracellular degradation of ApoB rather than decreased synthesis of ApoB. [3] Avasimibe inhibits ACTC with IC50 of 3.3 μM in IC-21 macrophages with consideration of the total inhibitor concentration in the assay sample. [4] Avasimibe inhibits human P450 isoenzymes CYP2C9, CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 with IC50 of 2.9 μM, 13.9 μM and 26.5 μM, respectively. [5] Avasimibe inhibits ACAT-1 expression and cholesterol ester synthesis in glioma cell lines. Avasimibe inhibits the growth of the glioma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis due to caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. [6]

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
THP1 cells NVLxXpRrTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= MWjJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKEGFQWStcYVlcWG2ZXSg[ZN1\XKrZnnl[EBkcG:uZYP0[ZJwdCCjY3P1cZVt[XSrb36gbY4hcHWvYX6gWGhROSClZXzsd{BmgHCxc3XkJJRwKGGlZYT5cE1NTExiZIXybY5oKGSrZn\ldoVvfGmjdHnvckBie3Onc4Pl[EBieyCnZn\lZ5Qhd25iZn;hcUBk\WyuIH\vdo1ifGmxbjygTWM2OD1zLkWg{txO NU\uTYRPOTh4MkCzPFE>
HepG2 cells MlnsSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NFfaS4tKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIFHDRXQhcW5iaIXtZY4hUGWyR{KgZ4VtdHNuIFnDOVA:OC52N{mg{txO NVTsZ3o{OTlzNke4PFg>
rat macrophages NUXGUVJ{TnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M{ewZlI1KGh? NI\ZdIdKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIFHDRXQhcW5icnH0JI1i[3KxcHjh[4V{KGG|c3Xzd4VlKGG|IHnuZ49zeG:{YYTpc44hd2ZiZYj0doFk\WyudXzhdkBcO0ifLX;s[YlkKGGlaXStRnNCKGOxbYDs[ZghcW62bzD0bIUhcW62cnHj[YxtfWyjcjDjbI9t\XO2ZYL5cEBme3SncjDh[pRmeiB{NDDodpMtKEmFNUC9NE41PzlizszN NHT6TXYyQTR4NEG4PS=>

... Click to View More Cell Line Experimental Data

Methods Test Index PMID
Western blot
p-AKT / AKT; 

PubMed: 29489864     

Immunoblotting of β-actin, Akt, and p-Akt in G3K cells treated with avasimibe at indicated concentrations for 48 hours.

Active β-catenin ; 

PubMed: 29545473     

Immunoblot of antibodies against active β-catenin (de-phosphorylated at Ser37 and Thr41) and β-actin in PC-3 cells treated with concentrations of avasimibe as indicated for 2 days. 

29489864 29545473

PubMed: 29545473     

Immunofluorescent staining of β-catenin in PC-3 cells treated with concentrations of avasimibe as indicated for 2 days. Scale bar: 10 μm. 

In vivo Avasimibe significantly reduces Lipoprotein(a) and total cholesterol levels in nine healthy male monkeys with a normal chow diet orally treated with CI-1011 at 30 mg/kg per day for 3 weeks, Lipoprotein(a) and total cholesterol levels reduce to 68 and 73% of control levels, respectively. Avasimibe decreases total cholesterol mainly due to reduction of low density lipoprotein (LDL). [2] Avasimibe decreases amyloid plaque load in the cortex and hippocampus and reduces the levels of insoluble Abeta40 and Abeta42 and C-terminal fragments of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in brain extracts in young human APP transgenic mice. Avasimibe reduces diffuse amyloid plaques by suppression of astrogliosis and enhanced microglial activation in aged human APP transgenic mice. [7]


Kinase Assay:


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P450 Inhibition Studies:

Pooled human liver microsomes (HLM) from at least 15 donors are used for all inhibition assays. For IC50 determinations, the substrate probes are used at their approximate in vitro Km values. All incubations are performed with 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and 1 mM NADPH. For CYP1A2 inhibition study, incubations are performed in a total volume of 0.5 ml, in duplicates with 0.1 mg/ml HLM, 30 μM phenacetin, 1 mM NADPH, and in the presence of avasimibe (0, 0.3, 0.75, 1.5, 3, 7.5, 15, 30, and 40 μM in 50 mM) in a potassium phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. After preincubation at 37 °C for 7 min, NADPH is added to initiate the enzyme reaction. The reaction mixture is quenched with 500 μl of ice-cold 100 ng/ml paracetamol-D4/CH3CN after 25 min. The standards (4-acetamidophenol, singlet) and quality controls (triplicates for low, medium, and high) are prepared at room temperature. After mixing, 0.2 ml of the samples is transferred to another plate and submitted for LC/MS/MS analysis after centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 10 min. A Supelco Discovery Amide C16, 100 × 2.1 mm (5-μm particle size) column (Supelco, Bellefonte, PA) is used. The mobile phase is isocratic, 40:60 [acetonitrile/formic acid, 0.1% (v/v)] at 0.2 ml/min.
Cell Research:


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  • Cell lines: primary human monocyte-derived macrophages
  • Concentrations: 1 μg/mL or 2 μg/mL
  • Incubation Time: 48 hours
  • Method:

    For foam cell formation, the growth medium (RPMI medium containing 10% human serum) is aspirated and the BMMs are rinsed four times with RPMI medium, and then HMMs are exposed to RPMI medium containing bovine serum albumin (BSA, 0.2%) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, 0.2%, vehicle for CI-1011) (control medium) with and without agacLDL (100 μg protein/ml) and CI-1011 (1 μg/ml) for 48 hours. For cholesterol efflux experiments, HMMs are preincubated with ag-acLDL (100 μg protein/ml) for 24h, and then exposed to control RPMI medium with and without HDL (100 μg protein/ml), CI-1011 (2 μg/ml) or HDL plus CI-1011 (2 μg/ml) for 24–48 hours. Additionally, the appearance of [14C]FC in the medium is monitored by first preincubating HMMs with RPMI medium containing ag-acLDL (100 μg protein/ml) radiolabeled with [4-14C]FC (0.5 μCi/ml) in an ethanolic spritz (final concentration, 0.1%) for 24 h. The medium is removed, cells rinsed three times with RPMI medium, and then cells are exposed to control RPMI medium with and without CI-1011 (1–10 μg/ml) for 4–48 h. At each time point, the medium is aspirated and centrifuged to pellet nonadherent cells. The appearance of [14C]FC in the medium is measured by liquid scintillation spectroscopy. Cellular lipids are extracted using hexane:isopropanol (3:2, v/v) for 1 h. The distribution of cellular radiolabeled cholesterol is measured by subjecting an aliquot of the cell extract and FC and EC standards to thin layer chromatography using petroleum ether:hexane:glacial acetic acid solvent system (85:15:2, v/v). The percent FC efflux is calculated as: medium [14C]FC dpm/ cell [14C] dpm×100. FC and TC mass are quantified by gas liquid chromatography using stigmasterol (1 mg/ml) as an internal standard. EC mass is calculated as the difference between TC and FC, and all values are normalized to cell protein. The MBC is defined as the lowest concentration that exhibited 99.9% or more reduction of the numbers of colonies compared with the cfu in the initial inoculum.

    (Only for Reference)
Animal Research:


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  • Animal Models: male cynomolgus monkeys
  • Dosages: 30 mg/kg
  • Administration: Orally at a single dose per day for 3 weeks
    (Only for Reference)

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro DMSO 100 mg/mL (199.31 mM)
Water Insoluble
Ethanol '8 mg/mL
In vivo Add solvents to the product individually and in order(Data is from Selleck tests instead of citations):
2% DMSO+corn oil
For best results, use promptly after mixing.

* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 501.72


CAS No. 166518-60-1
Storage powder
in solvent
Synonyms CI-1011, PD-148515
Smiles CC(C)C1=C(C(=CC=C1)C(C)C)OS(=O)(=O)NC(=O)CC2=C(C=C(C=C2C(C)C)C(C)C)C(C)C

In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)

Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)
Dosage mg/kg Average weight of animals g Dosing volume per animal ul Number of animals
Step 2: Enter the in vivo formulation ()
% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O

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Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

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Frequently Asked Questions

  • Question 1:

    I'd like to have more information about the in vivo administration of avasimibe in monkeys?

  • Answer:

    S2187 can be dissolved in 2% DMSO+corn oil at 5mg/ml clearly, and in 0.5% CMC Na+1% Tween 80 at 10mg/ml as a suspension.

  • Question 2:

    We want to use it for mice study by IP injection. I was wondering if you have any suggestions how to make a soluble solution for IP injection?

  • Answer:

    S2187 Avasimibe can be dissolved in 5% DMSO+30% PEG 300+5% Tween 80+ddH2O at 1 mg/ml as a clear solution. When preparing the solution, please dissolve the compound in DMSO clearly first, then add PEG and Tween. After they mixed well, then dilute with water. And we found after stayed for about 20min, the precipitation will go out. So please prepare the solution just before use.

P450 (e.g. CYP17) Signaling Pathway Map

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Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID