Sodium Phenylbutyrate

Catalog No.S4125 Synonyms: 4-PBA, 4-Phenylbutyric acid, NaPB

For research use only.

Sodium phenylbutyrate (4-PBA, 4-Phenylbutyric acid, NaPB) is a salt of 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) or 4-phenylbutyric acid.Sodium phenylbutyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor, used to treat urea cycle disorders.

Sodium Phenylbutyrate Chemical Structure

CAS No. 1716-12-7

Selleck's Sodium Phenylbutyrate has been cited by 15 publications

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Biological Activity

Description Sodium phenylbutyrate (4-PBA, 4-Phenylbutyric acid, NaPB) is a salt of 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) or 4-phenylbutyric acid.Sodium phenylbutyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor, used to treat urea cycle disorders.
HDAC [1]
In vitro

Phenylbutyrate is a well-known HDAC inhibitor, which increases gene transcription of a number of genes, and also exerts neuroprotective effects. Phenylbutyrate significantly attenuates MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine and loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra. [1] Phenylbutyrate attenuates the expression of the apoptosis antagonist Bcl-X(L), the double-strand break repair protein DNA-dependent protein kinase, the prostate progression marker caveolin-1, and the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor in prostate cancer cells. Phenylbutyrate is found to act in synergy with ionizing radiation to induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. [2]

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
Hela NHH2R2VHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M3fVcGlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiSFTBR{BqdiCqdX3hckBJ\WyjIHPlcIx{KG63Y3zlZZIh\Xi2cnHjeJMh[nliZnz1c5JqdWW2cnnjJIF{e2G7LDDLbV03NjN2zszN NUDMSop7RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUm1NlA2QDBpPkG5OVIxPThyPD;hQi=>
U937 MX3GeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NX[3T3NPPCCvTR?= NUKyWnA3QCC2bzC0PEBpenN? Ml\VTY5lfWO2aX;uJI9nKEODTWCgcXJPSSCneIDy[ZN{cW:wIHnuJIh2dWGwIGW5N|ch[2WubIOgZZQhPCCvTTDh[pRmeiB6IITvJFQ5KGi{czDifUBTXC2SQ2KgZY5idHm|aYO= Mmq4QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTl5N{CyO|MoRjF7N{ewNlc{RC:jPh?=
VA10 NXHMWINjTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= MlP0OEBuVQ>? MX2yOEBpenN? MYjJcoR2[3Srb36gc4YhS0GPUDDtVm5CKGW6cILld5Nqd25iaX6gbJVu[W5iVlGxNEBk\WyuczDheEA1KG2PIHHmeIVzKDJ2IHjyd{BjgSCUVD3QR3Ih[W6jbInzbZM> MYq8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8yQTd5MEK3N{c,OTl5N{CyO|M9N2F-
HT-29 NILHZYhHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M{TmNFQhdU1? Mmf3PEB1dyB2ODDodpM> M4Phcmlv\HWldHnvckBw\iCFQV3QJI1TVkFiZYjwdoV{e2mxbjDpckBpfW2jbjDIWE0zQSClZXzsd{BifCB2IH3NJIFnfGW{IEigeI8hPDhiaILzJIJ6KFKWLWDDVkBidmGueYPpdy=> NYjoUXVpRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUm3O|AzPzNpPkG5O|cxOjd|PD;hQi=>
A498 M1rqVmZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MkXlOEBuVQ>? NWf0SYJIQCC2bzC0PEBpenN? NXL6VI9YUW6mdXP0bY9vKG:oIFPBUXAhdVKQQTDlfJBz\XO|aX;uJIlvKGi3bXHuJGE1QThiY3XscJMh[XRiNDDtUUBi\nSncjC4JJRwKDR6IHjyd{BjgSCUVD3QR3Ih[W6jbInzbZM> MorKQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTl5N{CyO|MoRjF7N{ewNlc{RC:jPh?=
VA10 NFjETIVHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NVP2UJF3PCCvTR?= MoHENlQhcHK| M{LHcGlv\HWldHnvckBw\iCGRV\CNUBuWk6DIHX4dJJme3Orb36gbY4hcHWvYX6gWmEyOCClZXzsd{BifCB2IH3NJIFnfGW{IEK0JIhzeyCkeTDSWE1RS1JiYX7hcJl{cXN? M1fHRlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzF7N{ewNlc{Lz5zOUe3NFI4OzxxYU6=
VA10 NYryXmxnTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NF61To41KG2P MlrsNlQhcHK| MVfJcoR2[3Srb36gc4YhVExvM{egdJJwfGWrbjDlfJBz\XO|aX;uJIlvKGi3bXHuJHZCOTBiY3XscJMh[XRiNDDtUUBi\nSncjCyOEBpenNiYomgW4V{fGW{bjDicI91fGmwZx?= Mke2QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTl5N{CyO|MoRjF7N{ewNlc{RC:jPh?=
VA10 Mki4SpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MWSyNEBvVQ>? M1HldFI1KGi{cx?= MX;JcoR2[3Srb36gc4YhVExvM{egdJJwfGWrbjDlfJBz\XO|aX;uJIlvKGi3bXHuJHZCOTBiY3XscJMh[XRiMkCgcm0h[W[2ZYKgNlQhcHK|IHL5JHdme3Sncn6gZoxwfHSrbne= MXm8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8yQTd5MEK3N{c,OTl5N{CyO|M9N2F-
Methods Test Index PMID
Western blot Survivin ; p38 / p-p38 / ERK / p-ERK / JNK / p-JNK 27274278
In vivo Phenylbutyrate significantly extends survival and improved both the clinical and neuropathological phenotypes in G93A transgenic ALS mice. Phenylbutyrate administration ameliorates histone hypoacetylation observed in G93A mice and induced expression of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) p50, the phosphorylated inhibitory subunit of NF-kappaB (pIkappaB) and beta cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2), but reduced cytochrome c and caspase expression. Phenylbutyrate acts to phosphorylate IkappaB, translocating NF-kappaB p50 to the nucleus, or to directly acetylate NF-kappaB p50. [3] Phenylbutyrate increases brain histone acetylation and decreased histone methylation levels as assessed by both immunocytochemistry and Western blots in a transgenic mousemodel of Huntington's disease (HD). Phenylbutyrate increases mRNA for components of the ubiquitin-proteosomal pathway and down-regulated caspases implicated in apoptotic cell death, and active caspase 3 immunoreactivity in the striatum. [4]

Protocol (from reference)

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 186.18


CAS No. 1716-12-7
Storage 3 years -20°C powder
2 years -80°C in solvent
Smiles C1=CC=C(C=C1)CCCC(=O)[O-].[Na+]

In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)

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Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO ( Master liquid concentration mg/mL, Please contact us first if the concentration exceeds the DMSO solubility of the batch of drug. )

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300, mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80, mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O, mix and clarify.

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next add μL Corn oil, mix and clarify.

Note: 1. Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
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Molarity Calculator

Mass Concentration Volume Molecular Weight

Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment Interventions Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT05019417 Recruiting Drug: Glycerol Phenylbutyrate 1100 MG/ML Monocarboxylate Transporter 8 Deficiency Kaplan Medical Center|Weizmann Institute of Science June 30 2021 Phase 2|Phase 3
NCT04937062 Active not recruiting Drug: Glycerol Phenylbutyrate 1100 MG/ML [Ravicti] STXBP1 Encephalopathy With Epilepsy SLC6A1 Neurodevelopmental Disorder Weill Medical College of Cornell University March 1 2021 Early Phase 1
NCT04421677 Completed Drug: Phenylbutyrate Oral Tablet Inclusion Body Myositis|Sporadic Inclusion Body Myositis University of Kansas Medical Center August 20 2020 Phase 1
NCT02246218 Completed Drug: RAVICTI Urea Cycle Disorder Horizon Therapeutics LLC|Horizon Pharma Ireland Ltd. Dublin Ireland December 31 2014 Phase 4
NCT01096095 Withdrawn Drug: Placebo|Drug: Sodium Phenylbutyrate Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 3 Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre|Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Brazil June 2010 Phase 2
NCT00947544 Completed Drug: HPN-100|Drug: NaPBA Urea Cycle Disorders Horizon Pharma Ireland Ltd. Dublin Ireland March 2010 Phase 2

(data from, updated on 2022-08-01)

Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

Handling Instructions

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