Ferroptosis

Inhibitory Selectivity

Ferroptosis Products

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S1077

SB202190 (FHPI)

SB202190 (FHPI) is a potent p38 MAPK inhibitor targeting p38α/β with IC50 of 50 nM/100 nM in cell-free assays, sometimes used instead of SB 203580 to investigate potential roles for SAPK2a/p38 in vivo. SB202190 inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis via induction of autophagy and heme oxygenase-1. SB202190 significantly suppresses Erastin‐dependent ferroptosis.

S0788New

ML 210

ML-210 is a selective covalent inhibitor of cellular glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) with EC50 of 0.04 μM and induces ferroptosis. ML-210 can selectively kill cells induced to express mutant RAS. ML-210 exhibits anti-cancer activity.

S2505

Rosiglitazone maleate

Rosiglitazone maleate (BRL 49653), a member of the thiazolidinedione class of antihyperglycaemic agents, is a high-affinity selective agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) with IC50 of 42 nM. Rosiglitazone maleate also modulates TRP channels and induces autophagy. Rosiglitazone prevents ferroptosis.

S2556

Rosiglitazone

Rosiglitazone (BRL 49653) is a potent antihyperglycemic agent and a potent thiazolidinedione insulin sensitizer with IC50 of 12, 4 and 9 nM for rat, 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes, respectively. Rosiglitazone is a pure ligand of PPAR-gamma, and has no PPAR-alpha-binding action. Rosiglitazone modulates TRP channels and induces autophagy. Rosiglitazone prevents ferroptosis.

S8078

Bardoxolone Methyl

Bardoxolone Methyl (RTA 402, TP-155, NSC 713200, CDDO Methyl Ester, CDDO-Me) is an IKK inhibitor, showing potent proapoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities; Also a potent Nrf2 activator and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor. Bardoxolone Methyl abrogates ferroptosis. Bardoxolone methyl induces apoptosis and autophagy in cancer cells.

S3031

Linagliptin

Linagliptin (BI-1356) is a highly potent, selective DPP-4 inhibitor with IC50 of 1 nM and exhibits a 10,000-fold higher selectivity for DPP-4 than for other dipeptidyl peptidases such as DPP-2, DPP-8, and DPP-9. Linagliptin activates glomerular autophagy in a model of type 2 diabetes. DPP4 mediates ferroptosis in TP53-deficient CRC cells.

S1623

Acetylcysteine(N-acetylcysteine)

Acetylcysteine(N-acetyl-l-cysteine, NAC) is a ROS(reactive oxygen species) inhibitor that antagonizes the activity of proteasome inhibitors. It is also a tumor necrosis factor production inhibitor. Acetylcysteine(N-acetyl-l-cysteine) suppresses TNF-induced NF-κB activation through inhibition of IκB kinases. Acetylcysteine(N-acetyl-l-cysteine) induces apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway. Acetylcysteine(N-acetyl-l-cysteine) inhibits ferroptosis and virus replication.Solutions of Acetylcysteine are best fresh-prepared.

S1848

Curcumin

Curcumin (Diferuloylmethane) is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric, which is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). It is an inhibitor of p300 histone acetylatransferase(IC50~25 μM) and Histone deacetylase (HDAC); activates Nrf2 pathway and supresses the activation of transcription factor NF-κB. Curcumin induces mitophagy, autophagy, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest with antitumor activity. Curcumin reduces renal damage associated with rhabdomyolysis by decreasing ferroptosis-mediated cell death. Curcumin exhibits anti-infective properties against various human pathogens like the influenza virus, hepatitis C virus, HIV and so on.

S1443

Zileuton

Zileuton (A-64077) is an orally active inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, and thus inhibits leukotrienes (LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) formation, used to decrease the symptoms of asthma. Zileuton induces apoptosis while inhibits ferroptosis.

S2046

Pioglitazone HCl

Pioglitazone HCl (AD-4833, U-72107E) is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C8 and CYP3A4 enzymes. Pioglitazone HCl inhibits CYP2C8, CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 with Ki of 1.7 μM, 11.8 μM and 32.1 μM, respectively. Pioglitazone HCl is also a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonist with EC50 of 0.93 μM and 0.99 μM for human PPARγ and mouse PPARγ, respectively. Pioglitazone HCl inhibits mitochondrial iron uptake, lipid peroxidation, and subsequent ferroptosis.

S7243

Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1)

Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) is a potent and selective inhibitor of ferroptosis with EC50 of 60 nM.

S3984

Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA)

Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a phenolic antioxidant found in the leaves and twigs of the evergreen desert shrub, Larrea tridentata (Sesse and Moc. ex DC) Coville (creosote bush). It is a recognized inhibitor of lipoxygenase (LOX) and has antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a cytotoxic insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-1R)/HER2 inhibitor and induces apoptosis. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibits p300 and activates autophagy. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) protects cells from ferroptosis.

S7699

Liproxstatin-1

Liproxstatin-1 is a potent ferroptosis inhibitor with an IC50 of 22 nM.

S8432

Troglitazone (CS-045)

Troglitazone (Rezulin, Romglizone, Prelay, CS045, Romozin) is a potent agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-(PPAR) that is a ligand activated transcription factor regulating cell differentiation and growth. Troglitazone induces autophagy, apoptosis and necroptosis in bladder cancer cells. Troglitazone prevents RSL3-induced ferroptosis and lipid peroxidation in Pfa1 cells.

S8792

UAMC-3203

UAMC-3203 is an improved ferroptosis inhibitor with an IC50 value of 10 nM in IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells.

S7171

Setanaxib (GKT137831)

Setanaxib (GKT137831) is a potent, dual NADPH oxidase NOX1/NOX4 inhibitor with Ki of 110 nM and 140 nM, respectively. Treatment with GKT137831 suppresses reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. GKT137831 partly inhibits ferroptosis.

S5742

Deferoxamine mesylate

Deferoxamine mesylate is the mesylate salt of Deferoxamine, which forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent. Deferoxamine is a ferroptosis inhibitor that stabilizes HIF-1α expression and improves HIF-1α transactivity in hypoxic and hyperglycemic states in vitro. Deferoxamine decreases beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and induces autophagy.

S1040

Sorafenib Tosylate

Sorafenib Tosylate (Bay 43-9006) is a multikinase inhibitor of Raf-1 and B-Raf with IC50 of 6 nM and 22 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Sorafenib Tosylate inhibits VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, PDGFR-β, Flt-3 and c-KIT with IC50 of 90 nM, 20 nM, 57 nM, 59 nM and 68 nM, respectively. Sorafenib Tosylate induces autophagy and apoptosis and activates ferroptosis with anti-tumor activity.

S1166

Cisplatin

Cisplatin (cisplatinum, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II, CDDP) is an inorganic platinum complex, which is able to inhibit DNA synthesis by conforming DNA adducts in tumor cells. Cisplatin activates ferroptosis and induces autophagy. Solutions are best fresh-prepared.

S1007

Roxadustat (FG-4592)

Roxadustat (FG-4592) is an HIF-α prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor in a cell-free assay, stabilizes HIF-2 and induces EPO production. Roxadustat potentiates RSL3 induced ferroptosis. Phase 3.

S2111

Lapatinib

Lapatinib (GSK572016), used in the form of Lapatinib Ditosylate, is a potent EGFR and ErbB2 inhibitor with IC50 of 10.8 and 9.2 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Lapatinib induces ferroptosis and autophagic cell death.

S9663New

iFSP1

iFSP1 is a potent, selective and glutathione-independent inhibitor of ferroptosis suppressor protein 1 (FSP1/AIFM2) with EC50 of 103 nM. iFSP1 selectively induces ferroptosis in GPX4-knockout Pfa1 and HT1080 cells that overexpresses FSP1.

S1792

Simvastatin

Simvastatin (MK-0733) is a competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase with Ki of 0.1-0.2 nM in cell-free assays. Simvastatin induces ferroptosis, mitophagy, autophagy and apoptosis.

S1712

Deferasirox

Deferasirox (CGP-72670, ICL-670) is an iron chelator, also a cytochrome P450 3A4 inducer, Cytochrome P450 2C8 inhibitor, and Cytochrome P450 1A2 inhibitor. Deferasirox-induced iron depletion promotes BclxL downregulation and cell death.

S7397

Sorafenib

Sorafenib (BAY 43-9006) is a multikinase inhibitor of Raf-1 and B-Raf with IC50 of 6 nM and 22 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Sorafenib inhibits VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, PDGFR-β, Flt-3 and c-KIT with IC50 of 90 nM, 20 nM, 57 nM, 59 nM and 68 nM, respectively. Sorafenib induces autophagy and apoptosis and activates ferroptosis with anti-tumor activity.

S7242

Erastin

Erastin is a ferroptosis activator by acting on mitochondrial VDAC, exhibiting selectivity for tumor cells bearing oncogenic RAS.

S1576

Sulfasalazine

Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine, Salazopyrin, Sulphasalazine) is a sulfa derivative of mesalazine, used as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Sulfasalazine is a potent and specific inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), TGF-β and COX-2. Sulfasalazine induces ferroptosis, apoptosis and autophagy.

S7309

BAY 87-2243

BAY 87-2243 is a potent and selective hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) inhibitor. BAY 87-2243 inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity, thus triggering a mitophagy-dependent ROS increase leading to necroptosis and ferroptosis. BAY 87-2243 exerts antitumor activity. Phase 1.

S8254

FIN56

FIN56 is a specific inducer of ferroptosis .

S8155

RSL3

RSL3 is a ferroptosis activator in a VDAC-independent manner,exhibiting selectivity for tumor cells bearing oncogenic RAS. RSL3 binds, inactivates GPX4 and thus mediates GPX4-regulated ferroptosis.

S8661

CA3 (CIL56)

CA3 (CIL56) has potent inhibitory effects on YAP1/Tead transcriptional activity and primarily targets YAP1 high and therapy-resistant esophageal adenocarcinoma cells endowed with CSC properties. CA3(CIL56) induces ferroptosis and iron-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS).

S8790

ML385

ML385 is a novel and specific NRF2 inhibitor with an IC50 of 1.9 μM. It inhibits the downstream target gene expression of NRF2. NRF2 regulates the activity of several ferroptosis and lipid peroxidation-related proteins.

S8877

Imidazole ketone erastin

Imidazole ketone erastin (IKE) is a potent, selective, and metabolically stable system xc– inhibitor and inducer of ferroptosis.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S1077

SB202190 (FHPI)

SB202190 (FHPI) is a potent p38 MAPK inhibitor targeting p38α/β with IC50 of 50 nM/100 nM in cell-free assays, sometimes used instead of SB 203580 to investigate potential roles for SAPK2a/p38 in vivo. SB202190 inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis via induction of autophagy and heme oxygenase-1. SB202190 significantly suppresses Erastin‐dependent ferroptosis.

S0788New

ML 210

ML-210 is a selective covalent inhibitor of cellular glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) with EC50 of 0.04 μM and induces ferroptosis. ML-210 can selectively kill cells induced to express mutant RAS. ML-210 exhibits anti-cancer activity.

S2505

Rosiglitazone maleate

Rosiglitazone maleate (BRL 49653), a member of the thiazolidinedione class of antihyperglycaemic agents, is a high-affinity selective agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) with IC50 of 42 nM. Rosiglitazone maleate also modulates TRP channels and induces autophagy. Rosiglitazone prevents ferroptosis.

S2556

Rosiglitazone

Rosiglitazone (BRL 49653) is a potent antihyperglycemic agent and a potent thiazolidinedione insulin sensitizer with IC50 of 12, 4 and 9 nM for rat, 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes, respectively. Rosiglitazone is a pure ligand of PPAR-gamma, and has no PPAR-alpha-binding action. Rosiglitazone modulates TRP channels and induces autophagy. Rosiglitazone prevents ferroptosis.

S8078

Bardoxolone Methyl

Bardoxolone Methyl (RTA 402, TP-155, NSC 713200, CDDO Methyl Ester, CDDO-Me) is an IKK inhibitor, showing potent proapoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities; Also a potent Nrf2 activator and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor. Bardoxolone Methyl abrogates ferroptosis. Bardoxolone methyl induces apoptosis and autophagy in cancer cells.

S3031

Linagliptin

Linagliptin (BI-1356) is a highly potent, selective DPP-4 inhibitor with IC50 of 1 nM and exhibits a 10,000-fold higher selectivity for DPP-4 than for other dipeptidyl peptidases such as DPP-2, DPP-8, and DPP-9. Linagliptin activates glomerular autophagy in a model of type 2 diabetes. DPP4 mediates ferroptosis in TP53-deficient CRC cells.

S1623

Acetylcysteine(N-acetylcysteine)

Acetylcysteine(N-acetyl-l-cysteine, NAC) is a ROS(reactive oxygen species) inhibitor that antagonizes the activity of proteasome inhibitors. It is also a tumor necrosis factor production inhibitor. Acetylcysteine(N-acetyl-l-cysteine) suppresses TNF-induced NF-κB activation through inhibition of IκB kinases. Acetylcysteine(N-acetyl-l-cysteine) induces apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway. Acetylcysteine(N-acetyl-l-cysteine) inhibits ferroptosis and virus replication.Solutions of Acetylcysteine are best fresh-prepared.

S1848

Curcumin

Curcumin (Diferuloylmethane) is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric, which is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). It is an inhibitor of p300 histone acetylatransferase(IC50~25 μM) and Histone deacetylase (HDAC); activates Nrf2 pathway and supresses the activation of transcription factor NF-κB. Curcumin induces mitophagy, autophagy, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest with antitumor activity. Curcumin reduces renal damage associated with rhabdomyolysis by decreasing ferroptosis-mediated cell death. Curcumin exhibits anti-infective properties against various human pathogens like the influenza virus, hepatitis C virus, HIV and so on.

S1443

Zileuton

Zileuton (A-64077) is an orally active inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, and thus inhibits leukotrienes (LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) formation, used to decrease the symptoms of asthma. Zileuton induces apoptosis while inhibits ferroptosis.

S2046

Pioglitazone HCl

Pioglitazone HCl (AD-4833, U-72107E) is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C8 and CYP3A4 enzymes. Pioglitazone HCl inhibits CYP2C8, CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 with Ki of 1.7 μM, 11.8 μM and 32.1 μM, respectively. Pioglitazone HCl is also a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonist with EC50 of 0.93 μM and 0.99 μM for human PPARγ and mouse PPARγ, respectively. Pioglitazone HCl inhibits mitochondrial iron uptake, lipid peroxidation, and subsequent ferroptosis.

S7243

Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1)

Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) is a potent and selective inhibitor of ferroptosis with EC50 of 60 nM.

S3984

Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA)

Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a phenolic antioxidant found in the leaves and twigs of the evergreen desert shrub, Larrea tridentata (Sesse and Moc. ex DC) Coville (creosote bush). It is a recognized inhibitor of lipoxygenase (LOX) and has antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a cytotoxic insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-1R)/HER2 inhibitor and induces apoptosis. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibits p300 and activates autophagy. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) protects cells from ferroptosis.

S7699

Liproxstatin-1

Liproxstatin-1 is a potent ferroptosis inhibitor with an IC50 of 22 nM.

S8432

Troglitazone (CS-045)

Troglitazone (Rezulin, Romglizone, Prelay, CS045, Romozin) is a potent agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-(PPAR) that is a ligand activated transcription factor regulating cell differentiation and growth. Troglitazone induces autophagy, apoptosis and necroptosis in bladder cancer cells. Troglitazone prevents RSL3-induced ferroptosis and lipid peroxidation in Pfa1 cells.

S8792

UAMC-3203

UAMC-3203 is an improved ferroptosis inhibitor with an IC50 value of 10 nM in IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells.

S7171

Setanaxib (GKT137831)

Setanaxib (GKT137831) is a potent, dual NADPH oxidase NOX1/NOX4 inhibitor with Ki of 110 nM and 140 nM, respectively. Treatment with GKT137831 suppresses reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. GKT137831 partly inhibits ferroptosis.

S5742

Deferoxamine mesylate

Deferoxamine mesylate is the mesylate salt of Deferoxamine, which forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent. Deferoxamine is a ferroptosis inhibitor that stabilizes HIF-1α expression and improves HIF-1α transactivity in hypoxic and hyperglycemic states in vitro. Deferoxamine decreases beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and induces autophagy.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S1040

Sorafenib Tosylate

Sorafenib Tosylate (Bay 43-9006) is a multikinase inhibitor of Raf-1 and B-Raf with IC50 of 6 nM and 22 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Sorafenib Tosylate inhibits VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, PDGFR-β, Flt-3 and c-KIT with IC50 of 90 nM, 20 nM, 57 nM, 59 nM and 68 nM, respectively. Sorafenib Tosylate induces autophagy and apoptosis and activates ferroptosis with anti-tumor activity.

S1166

Cisplatin

Cisplatin (cisplatinum, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II, CDDP) is an inorganic platinum complex, which is able to inhibit DNA synthesis by conforming DNA adducts in tumor cells. Cisplatin activates ferroptosis and induces autophagy. Solutions are best fresh-prepared.

S1007

Roxadustat (FG-4592)

Roxadustat (FG-4592) is an HIF-α prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor in a cell-free assay, stabilizes HIF-2 and induces EPO production. Roxadustat potentiates RSL3 induced ferroptosis. Phase 3.

S2111

Lapatinib

Lapatinib (GSK572016), used in the form of Lapatinib Ditosylate, is a potent EGFR and ErbB2 inhibitor with IC50 of 10.8 and 9.2 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Lapatinib induces ferroptosis and autophagic cell death.

S9663New

iFSP1

iFSP1 is a potent, selective and glutathione-independent inhibitor of ferroptosis suppressor protein 1 (FSP1/AIFM2) with EC50 of 103 nM. iFSP1 selectively induces ferroptosis in GPX4-knockout Pfa1 and HT1080 cells that overexpresses FSP1.

S1792

Simvastatin

Simvastatin (MK-0733) is a competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase with Ki of 0.1-0.2 nM in cell-free assays. Simvastatin induces ferroptosis, mitophagy, autophagy and apoptosis.

S1712

Deferasirox

Deferasirox (CGP-72670, ICL-670) is an iron chelator, also a cytochrome P450 3A4 inducer, Cytochrome P450 2C8 inhibitor, and Cytochrome P450 1A2 inhibitor. Deferasirox-induced iron depletion promotes BclxL downregulation and cell death.

S7397

Sorafenib

Sorafenib (BAY 43-9006) is a multikinase inhibitor of Raf-1 and B-Raf with IC50 of 6 nM and 22 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Sorafenib inhibits VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, PDGFR-β, Flt-3 and c-KIT with IC50 of 90 nM, 20 nM, 57 nM, 59 nM and 68 nM, respectively. Sorafenib induces autophagy and apoptosis and activates ferroptosis with anti-tumor activity.

S7242

Erastin

Erastin is a ferroptosis activator by acting on mitochondrial VDAC, exhibiting selectivity for tumor cells bearing oncogenic RAS.

S1576

Sulfasalazine

Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine, Salazopyrin, Sulphasalazine) is a sulfa derivative of mesalazine, used as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Sulfasalazine is a potent and specific inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), TGF-β and COX-2. Sulfasalazine induces ferroptosis, apoptosis and autophagy.

S7309

BAY 87-2243

BAY 87-2243 is a potent and selective hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) inhibitor. BAY 87-2243 inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity, thus triggering a mitophagy-dependent ROS increase leading to necroptosis and ferroptosis. BAY 87-2243 exerts antitumor activity. Phase 1.

S8254

FIN56

FIN56 is a specific inducer of ferroptosis .

S8155

RSL3

RSL3 is a ferroptosis activator in a VDAC-independent manner,exhibiting selectivity for tumor cells bearing oncogenic RAS. RSL3 binds, inactivates GPX4 and thus mediates GPX4-regulated ferroptosis.

S8661

CA3 (CIL56)

CA3 (CIL56) has potent inhibitory effects on YAP1/Tead transcriptional activity and primarily targets YAP1 high and therapy-resistant esophageal adenocarcinoma cells endowed with CSC properties. CA3(CIL56) induces ferroptosis and iron-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S8790

ML385

ML385 is a novel and specific NRF2 inhibitor with an IC50 of 1.9 μM. It inhibits the downstream target gene expression of NRF2. NRF2 regulates the activity of several ferroptosis and lipid peroxidation-related proteins.

S8877

Imidazole ketone erastin

Imidazole ketone erastin (IKE) is a potent, selective, and metabolically stable system xc– inhibitor and inducer of ferroptosis.