Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA)

Catalog No.S8615 Synonyms: bichloroacetic acid, BCA

Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) Chemical Structure

Molecular Weight(MW): 150.92

Dichloroacetate, a specific inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) with IC50 values of 183 and 80 μM for PDK2 and PDK4 respectively, has been shown to derepress a mitochondrial potassium-ion channel axis, trigger apoptosis in cancer cells, and inhibit tumor growth.

Size Price Stock Quantity  
USD 97 In stock
Bulk Discount

Free Overnight Delivery on orders over $ 500
Next day delivery by 10:00 a.m. Order now.

Purity & Quality Control

Choose Selective Dehydrogenase Inhibitors

Biological Activity

Description Dichloroacetate, a specific inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) with IC50 values of 183 and 80 μM for PDK2 and PDK4 respectively, has been shown to derepress a mitochondrial potassium-ion channel axis, trigger apoptosis in cancer cells, and inhibit tumor growth.
PDK4 [4]
(Cell-free assay)
PDK2 [4]
(Cell-free assay)
80 μM 183 μM
In vitro

DCA can trigger apoptosis of human lung, breast and brain cancer cells[1]. After DCA treatment, cancer cells shows increased levels of ROS, depolarization of the MMP in vitro and increased apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo[2]. DCA inhibits the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), thereby stimulating the mitochondrial enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). When turned off, PDH no longer converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA required for mitochondrial respiration and glucose dependent oxidative phosphorylation. DCA thus shifts cellular metabolism from glycolysis to glucose oxidation, decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential gradient and helping to open mitochondrial transition pores. This metabolic switch facilitates translocation of pro-apoptotic mediators like cytochrome c (cyt c) and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), both of which stimulate apoptosis. DCA thereby drives cancer cells to commit suicide by apoptosis[3].

Methods Test Index PMID
Western blot
pPDH E1α / PDH E1α ; 

PubMed: 25630799     

BE(2)-C cells were treated with DCA, a PDK inhibitor at various concentrations (0-50 mM) for 48 h. Protein expression of phospho-PDC (pPDH E1α) and total PDC (PDH E1α) were detected by Western blotting. DCA (20 and 50 mM) inhibited the PDC phosphorylation. β-actin demonstrated relatively equal loading. 

In vivo DCA can act as a cytostatic agent in vitro and in vivo, without causing apoptosis (programmed cell death). DCA is discovered to be a safe drug with no cardiac, pulmonary, renal or bone marrow toxicity. The most serious common side effect consists of peripheral neuropathy, which is reversible. DCA has anti-cancer activity in several cancer types including colon, prostate, ovarian, neuroblastoma, lung carcinoid, cervical, endometrial, cholangiocarcinoma, sarcoma and T-cell lymphoma. Other antineoplastic actions of DCA have also been suggested. These include angiogenesis blockade, changes in expression of HIF1-α, alteration of pH regulators V-ATPase and MCT1, and other cell survival regulators such as PUMA, GLUT1, Bcl2 and p53. DCA is able to significantly reduce metastatic burden in the lungs of rats in a highly metastatic in vivo model of breast cancer[1]. In vivo the DCA-Na treatment induces 20% survival and decreased the tumoral diameter, volume and weight, without affect the body weight and avoid metastasis in C57BL/6 mice[3].


Cell Research:


+ Expand
  • Cell lines: breast cancer cell
  • Concentrations: 5 mM
  • Incubation Time: 24-72 h
  • Method:

    For the assessment of cell viability, cells are plated in 96 well plates at a density of 3000 cells per well and 8 wells per group. Following exposure to DCA and ATO for 24 to 72 hours, cells are incubated for 3 hours with neutral red (30 μg/ml) in fresh media, then washed with PBS, followed by the addition of lysis buffer (acetic acid/methanol, 80%/20%) and the absorbance at 540 nm is recorded. Results are expressed as mean ± S.D, calculations are performed using the Prism software package, ANOVA with Tukey post test was applied and P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

    (Only for Reference)
Animal Research:


+ Expand
  • Animal Models: C57BL/6 mice
  • Formulation: saline
  • Dosages: 500 and 1000 mg/kg
  • Administration: i.p.
    (Only for Reference)

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro DMSO 30 mg/mL (198.78 mM)
Water 30 mg/mL (198.78 mM)
Ethanol 30 mg/mL (198.78 mM)

* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 150.92


CAS No. 2156-56-1
Storage powder
in solvent
Synonyms bichloroacetic acid, BCA

Bio Calculators

Molarity Calculator

Molarity Calculator

Calculate the mass, volume or concentration required for a solution. The Selleck molarity calculator is based on the following equation:

Mass (mg) = Concentration (mM) × Volume (mL) × Molecular Weight (g/mol)

  • Mass
    Molecular Weight

*When preparing stock solutions, please always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the via label and MSDS / COA (available on product pages).

Dilution Calculator

Dilution Calculator

Calculate the dilution required to prepare a stock solution. The Selleck dilution calculator is based on the following equation:

Concentration (start) x Volume (start) = Concentration (final) x Volume (final)

This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2 ( Input Output )

  • C1

* When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and MSDS / COA (available online).

The Serial Dilution Calculator Equation

  • Serial Dilutions

  • Computed Result

  • C1=C0/X C1: LOG(C1):
    C2=C1/X C2: LOG(C2):
    C3=C2/X C3: LOG(C3):
    C4=C3/X C4: LOG(C4):
    C5=C4/X C5: LOG(C5):
    C6=C5/X C6: LOG(C6):
    C7=C6/X C7: LOG(C7):
    C8=C7/X C8: LOG(C8):
Molecular Weight Calculator

Molecular Weight Calculator

Enter the chemical formula of a compound to calculate its molar mass and elemental composition:

Total Molecular Weight: g/mol

Tip: Chemical formula is case sensitive. C10H16N2O2 c10h16n2o2

Instructions to calculate molar mass (molecular weight) of a chemical compound:

To calculate molar mass of a chemical compound, please enter its chemical formula and click 'Calculate'.

Definitions of molecular mass, molecular weight, molar mass and molar weight:

Molecular mass (molecular weight) is the mass of one molecule of a substance and is expressed in the unified atomic mass units (u). (1 u is equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12)
Molar mass (molar weight) is the mass of one mole of a substance and is expressed in g/mol.

Molarity Calculator

Mass Concentration Volume Molecular Weight

Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment interventions Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT03266900 Recruiting Procedure: re-TURBT|Drug: 6 weeks BCG instillation Bladder Cancer|Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma University Health Network Toronto|Bladder Cancer Canada|Canadian Urological Association Scholarship Fund|Canadian Urological Oncology Group November 16 2017 Early Phase 1
NCT03323437 Recruiting Drug: Risperidone Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders Weill Medical College of Cornell University|New York State Psychiatric Institute|Columbia University|National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) September 15 2017 Phase 4
NCT03193528 Recruiting -- Bladder Cancer University of Hawaii|Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center|University of Texas December 30 2016 --

Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

Handling Instructions

Tel: +1-832-582-8158 Ext:3

If you have any other enquiries, please leave a message.

  • * Indicates a Required Field

Dehydrogenase Signaling Pathway Map

Related Dehydrogenase Products

Tags: buy Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) | Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) supplier | purchase Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) | Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) cost | Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) manufacturer | order Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) | Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) distributor
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID