Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA)
For research use only.
Catalog No.S8615 Synonyms: Dichloroacetic acid, bichloroacetic acid, BCA
Molecular Weight(MW): 150.92
Dichloroacetate, a specific inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) with IC50 values of 183 and 80 μM for PDK2 and PDK4 respectively, has been shown to derepress Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter and a mitochondrial potassium-ion channel axis. Sodium dichloroacetate increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, triggers apoptosis in cancer cells, and inhibits tumor growth.
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|Description||Dichloroacetate, a specific inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) with IC50 values of 183 and 80 μM for PDK2 and PDK4 respectively, has been shown to derepress Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter and a mitochondrial potassium-ion channel axis. Sodium dichloroacetate increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, triggers apoptosis in cancer cells, and inhibits tumor growth.|
DCA can trigger apoptosis of human lung, breast and brain cancer cells. After DCA treatment, cancer cells shows increased levels of ROS, depolarization of the MMP in vitro and increased apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. DCA inhibits the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), thereby stimulating the mitochondrial enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). When turned off, PDH no longer converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA required for mitochondrial respiration and glucose dependent oxidative phosphorylation. DCA thus shifts cellular metabolism from glycolysis to glucose oxidation, decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential gradient and helping to open mitochondrial transition pores. This metabolic switch facilitates translocation of pro-apoptotic mediators like cytochrome c (cyt c) and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), both of which stimulate apoptosis. DCA thereby drives cancer cells to commit suicide by apoptosis.
|In vivo||DCA can act as a cytostatic agent in vitro and in vivo, without causing apoptosis (programmed cell death). DCA is discovered to be a safe drug with no cardiac, pulmonary, renal or bone marrow toxicity. The most serious common side effect consists of peripheral neuropathy, which is reversible. DCA has anti-cancer activity in several cancer types including colon, prostate, ovarian, neuroblastoma, lung carcinoid, cervical, endometrial, cholangiocarcinoma, sarcoma and T-cell lymphoma. Other antineoplastic actions of DCA have also been suggested. These include angiogenesis blockade, changes in expression of HIF1-α, alteration of pH regulators V-ATPase and MCT1, and other cell survival regulators such as PUMA, GLUT1, Bcl2 and p53. DCA is able to significantly reduce metastatic burden in the lungs of rats in a highly metastatic in vivo model of breast cancer. In vivo the DCA-Na treatment induces 20% survival and decreased the tumoral diameter, volume and weight, without affect the body weight and avoid metastasis in C57BL/6 mice.|
|In vitro||DMSO||30 mg/mL (198.78 mM)|
|Water||30 mg/mL (198.78 mM)|
* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.
|Synonyms||Dichloroacetic acid, bichloroacetic acid, BCA|
In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)
|Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)|
|Dosage||mg/kg||Average weight of animals||g||Dosing volume per animal||ul||Number of animals|
|Step 2: Enter the in vivo formulation ()|
|% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O|
Working concentration： mg/ml；
Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: ： mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO (Master liquid concentration mg/mL，)
Method for preparing in vivo formulation：Take DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300， mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80，mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O，mix and clarify.
1.Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2.Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such as vortex, ultrasound or hot water bath can be used to aid dissolving.
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Clinical Trial Information
|NCT Number||Recruitment||interventions||Conditions||Sponsor/Collaborators||Start Date||Phases|
|NCT04190368||Not yet recruiting||Other: Team Clinic||Type1 Diabetes||Children''s Hospital Los Angeles|University of Southern California|Cedars-Sinai Medical Center||December 1 2020||Not Applicable|
|NCT04429542||Recruiting||Drug: BCA101|Drug: Pembrolizumab||TNBC - Triple-Negative Breast Cancer|Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma|Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Anal Canal|Uveal Melanoma|Glioblastoma|Colorectal Cancer|Chordoma|Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung|KRAS G12D|KRAS G13D|EGFR Amplification|Epithelial Ovarian Cancer|Hepatocellular Carcinoma|Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer|Pancreas Cancer||Bicara Therapeutics||June 1 2020||Phase 1|
|NCT04212130||Completed||Other: BCA method for assessing environmental cleanliness||Nosocomial Infection|Infection Control|Multi-antibiotic Resistance||Cumhuriyet University||March 9 2020||Not Applicable|
|NCT04155359||Recruiting||--||Bladder Cancer||miR Scientific LLC||March 1 2020||--|
Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.
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