Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA)

Catalog No.S8615 Synonyms: Dichloroacetic acid, bichloroacetic acid, BCA

For research use only.

Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA, Dichloroacetic acid, bichloroacetic acid, BCA), a specific inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) with IC50 values of 183 and 80 μM for PDK2 and PDK4 respectively, has been shown to derepress Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter and a mitochondrial potassium-ion channel axis. Sodium dichloroacetate increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, triggers apoptosis in cancer cells, and inhibits tumor growth.

Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) Chemical Structure

CAS No. 2156-56-1

Selleck's Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) has been cited by 8 Publications

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Description Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA, Dichloroacetic acid, bichloroacetic acid, BCA), a specific inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) with IC50 values of 183 and 80 μM for PDK2 and PDK4 respectively, has been shown to derepress Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter and a mitochondrial potassium-ion channel axis. Sodium dichloroacetate increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, triggers apoptosis in cancer cells, and inhibits tumor growth.
Targets
PDK4 [4]
(Cell-free assay)
PDK2 [4]
(Cell-free assay)
80 μM 183 μM
In vitro

DCA can trigger apoptosis of human lung, breast and brain cancer cells[1]. After DCA treatment, cancer cells shows increased levels of ROS, depolarization of the MMP in vitro and increased apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo[2]. DCA inhibits the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), thereby stimulating the mitochondrial enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). When turned off, PDH no longer converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA required for mitochondrial respiration and glucose dependent oxidative phosphorylation. DCA thus shifts cellular metabolism from glycolysis to glucose oxidation, decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential gradient and helping to open mitochondrial transition pores. This metabolic switch facilitates translocation of pro-apoptotic mediators like cytochrome c (cyt c) and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), both of which stimulate apoptosis. DCA thereby drives cancer cells to commit suicide by apoptosis[3].

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
MCF7 MYDGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NVXJ[3Y1OTBibV2= MkDTNVIhcHK| MXLJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKFCGS{GgbY4hcHWvYX6gUWNHPyClZXzsd{Bie3Onc4Pl[EBieyCrbnPy[YF{\SCrbjDvfJlo\W5iY3;ud5VueHSrb36gdoF1\SCjdDCxNEBuVSCjZoTldkAyOiCqcoO= NXvEZnY6RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkewNFY6QTFpPkK3NFA3QTlzPD;hQi=>
MCF7 MWnGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NGrndVcyOCCvTR?= MkHqNVIhcHK| MkHHTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCSRFuxJIlvKGi3bXHuJG1ETjdiY3XscJMh[XO|ZYPz[YQh[XNiZHXjdoVie2ViaX6g[Zh1emGlZXzseYxieiCjY3nkbYZq[2G2aX;uJJJifGViYYSgNVAhdU1iYX\0[ZIhOTJiaILz Mnj6QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjdyME[5PVEoRjJ5MEC2PVkyRC:jPh?=
MCF7 MXnGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NGj1[pQyOCCvTR?= NIP5c2gyOiCqcoO= MVfJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKFCGS{GgbY4hcHWvYX6gUWNHPyClZXzsd{Bie3Onc4Pl[EBieyCmZXPy[YF{\SCrbjDwdo91d25icILv[JVkfGmxbjDyZZRmKGG2IEGwJI1OKGGodHXyJFEzKGi{cx?= M2Ltd|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ5MEC2PVkyLz5{N{CwOlk6OTxxYU6=
MCF7 NHXxR|NHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NVvEbpd{OTBibV2= Mn;rNVIhcHK| MmLxTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCSRFuxJIlvKGi3bXHuJG1ETjdiY3XscJMh[XO|ZYPz[YQh[XNiaX7jdoVie2ViaX6gdoF1cW9ib3[gc5h6\2WwIHPvcpN2dXC2aX;uJJJifGVidH:g[Zh1emGlZXzseYxieiCjY3nkbYZq[2G2aX;uJJJifGViYYSgNVAhdU1iYX\0[ZIhOTJiaILz MWK8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPzByNkm5NUc,OjdyME[5PVE9N2F-
MCF7 Mn7iSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? M4DmblExKG2P NFjIPJQyOiCqcoO= NHPSUpdKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIGDET|EhcW5iaIXtZY4hVUOINzDj[YxteyCjc4Pld5Nm\CCjczDk[YNz\WG|ZTDpckBt[WO2YYTlJJBzd2S3Y4Tpc44h[XRiMUCgcW0h[W[2ZYKgNVIhcHK| NEmxdZk9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{N{CwOlk6OSd-MkewNFY6QTF:L3G+
NCI-H1975 M4jCSWFvfGmycn;sbYZmemG2aY\lJIF{e2G7 NXHNVppyOjBibV2= M2PY[FczKGi{cx?= M{PXV2FvfGmycn;sbYZmemG2aY\lJIFkfGm4aYT5JIFo[Wmwc4SgbJVu[W5iTlPJMWgyQTd3IHPlcIx{KGG|c3Xzd4VlKGG|IILl[JVkfGmxbjDpckBk\WyuII\pZYJqdGm2eTDheEAzOCCvTTDh[pRmeiB5MjDodpMh[nliTWTUJIF{e2G7 NVzEW|ljRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxM{C0O|A1QTFpPkOwOFcxPDlzPD;hQi=>
MCF7 MkLaSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? M4jrSlkxKG2rboO= NV\D[lZYUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDQSGsyKCi3bnvuc5dvKG:{aXfpckkh\XiycnXzd4VlKGmwIHj1cYFvKE2FRkegZ4VtdHNidYPpcochWESNIITp[IUh[XNic4Xid5Rz[XSnIH3lZZN2emWmIHHmeIVzKDlyIH3pcpMhcW5icILld4Vv[2Vib3[gRXRRKGK7IFHEVE1IdG9ibIXtbY5me2OnboSgb4lv[XOnIHHzd4F6 NX;Zb2h[RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxM{G1NFk3QTlpPkOxOVA6Pjl7PD;hQi=>
MCF7 M{T3UWFvfGm2dX3vdkBie3OjeR?= MnW1N|AhdWdxa3e= Mo\1eJdwKHenZXvz MUfBcpRqfHWvb4KgZYN1cX[rdImgZYdicW6|dDDoeY1idiCPQ1[3JINmdGy|IIjlco9oemGodHXkJIlvKEKDTFKvZ{BvfWSnIH3veZNmKGG|c3Xzd4VlKGG|IIT1cY9zKGe{b4f0bEBqdmirYnn0bY9vKGG2IEOwJI1oN2upLDDpekBi\G2rbnnzeIVz\WRiZY\ldpkhfHexIHThfZMh\m:{IIT3c{B4\WWtczDt[YF{fXKnZDDh[pRmeiBzNDDkZZl{ MV28ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8{OTVyOU[5PUc,OzF3MEm2PVk9N2F-
MCF7 NGnyeIxHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NXizToxpOzBidV2= M{\TfVQhcHK| NV\VPVFJUW6mdXP0bY9vKG:oIH3leIFjd2yrYzDy[ZZmenOjbDDmdo9uKGGncn;ibYMh\2y7Y3;sfZNqeyC2bzDvfIll[XSrdnWgdIhwe3Cqb4L5cIF1cW:wIHnuJIh2dWGwIF3DSlch[2WubIOgZZN{\XO|ZXSgZZMhcW6lcnXhd4UhcW5iZYj0doFk\WyudXzhdkBi[2mmaX\pZ4F1cW:wIILheIUh[XRiM{CgeW0heHKndILlZZRm\CCob4KgOEBpenNiZn;scI94\WRiYomg[4x2[2:|ZTDh[IRqfGmxbjDh[pRmeiB{NTDtbY5{KGK7IIPlZYhwenOnIGjGNlQh\Xi2 MnXkQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOzF3MEm2PVkoRjNzNUC5Olk6RC:jPh?=
MCF7 NYTmd|J{TnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= Ml:wN|AhfU1? MmnLOEBpenN? MXXJcoR2[3Srb36gc4YhdWW2YXLvcIlkKHKndnXyd4FtKG[{b32gZYVzd2KrYzDncJlkd2y7c3nzJJRwKG:6aXTheIl3\SCyaH;zdIhwenmuYYTpc44hcW5iaIXtZY4hVUOINzDj[YxteyCjc4Pld5Nm\CCjczDpcoNz\WG|ZTDpckBmgHS{YXPlcIx2dGG{IHHjbYRq\mmlYYTpc44hemG2ZTDheEA{OCC3TTDwdoV1emWjdHXkJIZweiB2IHjyd{Bnd2yub4fl[EBjgSCpbIXjc5NmKGGmZHn0bY9vKGGodHXyJFI2KG2rboOg[o9tdG:5ZXSgZpkhe3Wkc3XxeYVvfCCjc4PhfS=> NVHiV3dlRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxM{G1NFk3QTlpPkOxOVA6Pjl7PD;hQi=>
MCF7 NW[wfIJkTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= MXSzNEB2VQ>? MXy0JIhzew>? MlHETY5lfWO2aX;uJI9nKG2ndHHic4xq[yC{ZY\ldpNidCCocn;tJIFmem:kaXOg[4x6[2:ueYPpd{B1dyCxeHnkZZRqfmVicHjvd5Bpd3K7bHH0bY9vKGmwIHj1cYFvKE2FRkegZ4VtdHNiYYPz[ZN{\WRiYYOg[IVkdGmwZTDpckBmgHS{YXPlcIx2dGG{IHHjbYRq\mmlYYTpc44hemG2ZTDheEA{OCC3TTDwdoV1emWjdHXkJIZweiB2IHjyd{Bnd2yub4fl[EBjgSCpbIXjc5NmKGGmZHn0bY9vKGGodHXyJFI2KG2rboOg[o9tdG:5ZXSgZpkhe3Wkc3XxeYVvfCCjc4PhfS=> M1LIO|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzNzNUC5Olk6Lz5|MUWwPVY6QTxxYU6=
MCF7 NGfESYpHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M3nIN|MxKHWP M3TqXlYhcHK| NYjxVo1NUW6mdXP0bY9vKG:oIH3leIFjd2yrYzDy[ZZmenOjbDDmdo9uKGGncn;ibYMh\2y7Y3;sfZNqeyC2bzDvfIll[XSrdnWgdIhwe3Cqb4L5cIF1cW:wIHnuJIh2dWGwIF3DSlch[2WubIOgZZN{\XO|ZXSgZZMh\GWlcnXhd4UhcW5ib4j5[4VvKGOxboP1cZB1cW:wIILheIUh[XRiM{CgeW0heHKndILlZZRm\CCob4KgOkBpenNiZn;scI94\WRiYomgc4xq\2:veXPpckBCKGGmZHn0bY9vKGGodHXyJFI2KG2rboOg[o9tdG:5ZXSgZpkhe3Wkc3XxeYVvfCCjc4PhfS=> Ml;HQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOzF3MEm2PVkoRjNzNUC5Olk6RC:jPh?=
Assay
Methods Test Index PMID
Western blot pPDH E1α / PDH E1α 25630799
In vivo DCA can act as a cytostatic agent in vitro and in vivo, without causing apoptosis (programmed cell death). DCA is discovered to be a safe drug with no cardiac, pulmonary, renal or bone marrow toxicity. The most serious common side effect consists of peripheral neuropathy, which is reversible. DCA has anti-cancer activity in several cancer types including colon, prostate, ovarian, neuroblastoma, lung carcinoid, cervical, endometrial, cholangiocarcinoma, sarcoma and T-cell lymphoma. Other antineoplastic actions of DCA have also been suggested. These include angiogenesis blockade, changes in expression of HIF1-α, alteration of pH regulators V-ATPase and MCT1, and other cell survival regulators such as PUMA, GLUT1, Bcl2 and p53. DCA is able to significantly reduce metastatic burden in the lungs of rats in a highly metastatic in vivo model of breast cancer[1]. In vivo the DCA-Na treatment induces 20% survival and decreased the tumoral diameter, volume and weight, without affect the body weight and avoid metastasis in C57BL/6 mice[3].

Protocol (from reference)

Cell Research:

[2]

  • Cell lines: breast cancer cell
  • Concentrations: 5 mM
  • Incubation Time: 24-72 h
  • Method:

    For the assessment of cell viability, cells are plated in 96 well plates at a density of 3000 cells per well and 8 wells per group. Following exposure to DCA and ATO for 24 to 72 hours, cells are incubated for 3 hours with neutral red (30 μg/ml) in fresh media, then washed with PBS, followed by the addition of lysis buffer (acetic acid/methanol, 80%/20%) and the absorbance at 540 nm is recorded. Results are expressed as mean ± S.D, calculations are performed using the Prism software package, ANOVA with Tukey post test was applied and P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

Animal Research:

[3]

  • Animal Models: C57BL/6 mice
  • Dosages: 500 and 1000 mg/kg
  • Administration: i.p.

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 150.92
Formula

C2HCl2O2.Na

CAS No. 2156-56-1
Storage 3 years -20°C powder
2 years -80°C in solvent
Smiles C(C(=O)[O-])(Cl)Cl.[Na+]

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Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment Interventions Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT05460533 Recruiting Biological: Tisagenlecleucel B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center|Novartis Pharmaceuticals July 12 2022 Phase 2
NCT05130047 Recruiting Drug: Aldafermin|Drug: Placebo Chronic Diarrhea|Irritable Bowel Syndrome With Diarrhea|Bile Acid Malabsorption|Bile Acid Diarrhea|Bile Acid Malabsorption Syndrome Type II|Functional Diarrhea Michael Camilleri MD|NGM Biopharmaceuticals Inc|Mayo Clinic December 1 2021 Phase 2
NCT04756284 Recruiting -- Bladder Cancer PhageTech Inc. February 8 2021 --

(data from https://clinicaltrials.gov, updated on 2022-08-01)

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