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Catalog No. Product Name Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S0947 Cafestol Cafestol is a natural diterpenes extracted from coffee beans. Cafestol induces apoptosis and regulates a variety of inflammatory mediators to reduce inflammation. Cafestol inhibits PI3K/Akt pathway. Cafestol also can reduce the production of ROS in the leukemia cell line HL60.
S1547 Febuxostat Febuxostat (TMX 67, TEI-6720) is a selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor with Ki of 0.6 nM.
Toxicol Sci, 2022, kfac073
J Proteome Res, 2021, 20(6):3134-3149
Viruses, 2020, 12(10)E1067
S1623 Acetylcysteine (N-acetylcysteine) Acetylcysteine (N-acetyl-l-cysteine, NAC) is a ROS(reactive oxygen species) inhibitor that antagonizes the activity of proteasome inhibitors. It is also a tumor necrosis factor production inhibitor. Acetylcysteine(N-acetyl-l-cysteine) suppresses TNF-induced NF-κB activation through inhibition of IκB kinases. Acetylcysteine(N-acetyl-l-cysteine) induces apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway. Acetylcysteine(N-acetyl-l-cysteine) inhibits ferroptosis and virus replication.Solutions of Acetylcysteine are best fresh-prepared.
Immunity, 2022, 55(7):1185-1199.e8
EMBO Mol Med, 2022, 14(2):e14903
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2022, 41(1):41
S1630 Allopurinol Allopurinol is a purine analog inhibitor of the enzyme xanthine oxidase, used to treat gout or kidney stones, and to decrease levels of uric acid.
Hum Cell, 2022, 10.1007/s13577-022-00671-y
J Reprod Immunol, 2021, 149:103457
J Proteome Res, 2021, 20(6):3134-3149
S1631 Allopurinol Sodium Allopurinol Sodium is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor with an IC50 of 7.82±0.12 μM.
J Reprod Immunol, 2021, 149:103457
Nat Commun, 2020, 11(1):481
Reproduction, 2020, 159(1):73-80
S2369 Troxerutin Troxerutin, a natural bioflavonoid isolated from Sophora japonica, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. Troxerutin, also known as vitamin P4, is a tri-hydroxyethylated derivative of natural bioflavonoid rutins which can inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depress ER stress-mediated NOD activation.
Food Funct, 2019, 10(8):5059-5069
S3205 Perillaldehyde Perillaldehyde (Perilladehyde, Perillal, PAE, PA), the main component of Perilla frutescens (a traditional medicinal antioxidant herb), inhibits BaP-induced AHR activation and ROS production, inhibits BaP/AHR-mediated release of the CCL2 chemokine, and activats the NRF2/HO1 antioxidant pathway.
S3578 Pyrroloquinoline quinone Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ, Methoxatin) is a natural anti-oxidant with anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects. Pyrroloquinoline quinone prevents estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis.
S3590 Triolein Triolein is an inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and reduces both the expression of IL-6 and ROS generation in irradiated keratinocytes.
S3616 Asiaticoside Asiaticoside (Ba 2742, BRN0078195, CCRIS8995, NSC166062, Emdecassol,Madecassol), the major active principle of Centella asiatica, prevents ultraviolet A-dependent photoaging by suppressing ultraviolet A-induced reactive oxygen species production. It also decreases DNA binding by MITF.
Med Sci Monit, 2020, 26:e924435
S3631 (S)-Methylisothiourea sulfate (S)-Methylisothiourea sulfate is a potent inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS).
Mol Immunol, 2020, 117:189-200
S3816 Dehydroevodiamine Dehydroevodiamine (DHED), a constituent of Evodia rutaecarpa, has various biological effects such as hypotensive, negative chronotropic, ion channel depressant, inhibition of nitric oxide production and cerebral blood flow enhancing activities. Dehydroevodiamine inhibits LPS-induced iNOS, COX-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) expression in murine macrophage cells.
S3973 L-SelenoMethionine L-SelenoMethionine (SeMet), a naturally occurring amino acid, is a major food-form of selenium. It has been used as a supplement, and exhibits some important functions like cancer prevention and antioxidative defense.
S4017 Allylthiourea Allylthiourea is a metabolic inhibitor that selective inhibits ammonia oxidation.
S4074 Sodium Nitrite Sodium nitrite is a myeloperoxidase inhibitor with IC50 of 1.3 μM.
S4603 Gallic acid Gallic acid (3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzoic acid, Gallate, Benzoic acid), known as powerful antioxidants, is an organic acid found in a variety of foods and herbs.
J Nutr Biochem, 2015, 26(11):1379-84
S4853 Ecabet sodium Ecabet sodium (TA-2711, TA-2711E) is a widely employed mucoprotective agent for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Ecabet sodium inhibits the ability of Helicobacter pylori to induce neutrophil production of reactive oxygen species and interleukin-8, Ecabet sodium can also reduce apoptosis.
S5771 Sulforaphane Sulforaphane is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate derived from the consumption of cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, and kale. It is an inducer of Nrf2. Sulforaphane is also an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and NF-κB. Sulforaphane increases heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and reduces the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sulforaphane induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
Cell Mol Immunol, 2022, 19(8):872-882
Elife, 2022, 11e67368
Cell Death Discov, 2021, 7(1):375
S6281 Sodium Thiocyanate Sodium Thiocyanate (NaSCN, Sodium rhodanide, Sodium sulfocyanate, Sodium rhodanate), one of the main sources of the thiocyanate anion, is used as a precursor for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other specialty chemicals. Sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN) reduces IL-6, whereas increases IL-10 levels. Sodium thiocyanate also reduces ROS.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2022, 2022:8315503
S6920 SEA0400 SEA0400 is a selective and potent inhibitor of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) that inhibits Na+-dependent Ca2+ uptake in cultured neurons, astrocytes, and microglia with IC50 of 33 nM, 5.0 nM and 8.3 nM, respectively. SEA0400 prevents sodium nitroprusside (SNP) from increasing ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in an extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent manner.
S7171 Setanaxib (GKT137831) Setanaxib (GKT137831, GKT831) is a potent, dual NADPH oxidase NOX1/NOX4 inhibitor with Ki of 110 nM and 140 nM, respectively. Treatment with GKT137831 suppresses reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. GKT137831 partly inhibits ferroptosis.
Cell Chem Biol, 2022, S2451-9456(22)00127-1
Cell Death Dis, 2022, 13(4):371
Antioxidants (Basel), 2022, 11(3)513
S7873 Disodium (R)-2-Hydroxyglutarate Disodium (R)-2-Hydroxyglutarate (D-α-Hydroxyglutaric acid disodium) is a competitive inhibitor of α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases with Ki of 10.87 ± 1.85 mM.
Cell Mol Immunol, 2022, 10.1038/s41423-022-00842-9
Mol Ther, 2022, S1525-0016(22)00007-7
Cell Metab, 2021, 33(1):110-127.e5
S8639 Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) is an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase and also a potent, irreversible, and time-, temperature-dependent iNOS/eNOS inhibitor. Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) also functions as a TRPA1 activator and selectively inhibits intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS).
Nat Biotechnol, 2022, 10.1038/s41587-021-01169-y
Immunity, 2022, 55(7):1185-1199.e8
Bioeng Transl Med, 2022, 7(2):e10276
S8974 GSK2795039 GSK2795039 is an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) with pIC50 of 6.57 for NOX2-mediated activation of HRP/Amplex Red. GSK2795039 inhibits reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, NADPH consumption and reduces apoptosis.
Sci Total Environ, 2022, 838(Pt 2):155825
S8978 Mitoquinone (MitoQ10) mesylate Mitoquinone mesylate (MitoQ, MitoQ10, Mitoubiquinone) is a TPP-based, mitochondria-targeted antioxidant that blocks H2O2-induced intracellular ROS responses and protects against oxidative damage. This product is a waxy solid.
Immunity, 2022, S1074-7613(22)00280-1
Immunity, 2022, 55(7):1185-1199.e8
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2022, 41(1):83
S9107 Glycitein Glycitein is an aglycone isoflavone found in soy and red clover and exhibits a wide variety of beneficial properties, including neuroprotective, antioxidative, anticancer, anti-osteoporotic, and anti-atherosclerotic activities.
S0056 (E/Z)-BCI (E/Z)-BCI (BCI, NSC 150117) is an inhibitor of dual specific phosphatase 1/6 (DUSP1/DUSP6) and mitogen-activated protein kinase with EC50 of 13.3 μM and 8.0 μM for DUSP6 and DUSP1 in cells, respectively. (E)-BCI induces apoptosis via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of intrinsic mitochondrial pathway in H1299 lung cancer cells.
S0770 Camalexin Camalexin, a phytoalexin isolated from Camelina sativa and Arabidopsis (Cruciferae), can induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Camalexin has antibacterial, antifungal, antiproliferative and anticancer activities.
S1046 Vandetanib (ZD6474) Vandetanib (ZD6474) is a potent inhibitor of VEGFR2 with IC50 of 40 nM in a cell-free assay. It also inhibits VEGFR3 and EGFR with IC50 of 110 nM and 500 nM, respectively. Not sensitive to PDGFRβ, Flt1, Tie-2 and FGFR1 with IC50 of 1.1-3.6 μM. No activity against MEK, CDK2, c-Kit, erbB2, FAK, PDK1, Akt and IGF-1R with IC50 above 10 μM. Vandetanib (ZD6474) increases apoptosis and induces autophagy by increasing the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
Cancer Res, 2022, canres.1397.2021
Hum Cell, 2022, 10.1007/s13577-022-00671-y
Cell Rep Med, 2022, 3(1):100492
S2271 Berberine chloride (NSC 646666) Berberine chloride (NSC 646666, Natural Yellow 18) is a quaternary ammonium salt from the group of isoquinoline alkaloids. Berberine activates caspase 3 and caspase 8, cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and the release of cytochrome c. Berberine chloride decreases the expression of c-IAP1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Berberine chloride induces apoptosis with sustained phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, as well as generation of the ROS. Berberine chloride is a dual topoisomerase I and II inhibitor. Berberine chloride is also a potential autophagy modulator.
J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2022, 1-11
Front Pharmacol, 2021, 12:632201
Molecules, 2021, 26(5)1210
S2843 BI-D1870 BI-D1870 is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of S6 ribosome for RSK1/2/3/4 with IC50 of 31 nM/24 nM/18 nM/15 nM in cell-free assays, respectively; 10- to 100-fold selectivity for RSK than MST2, GSK-3β, MARK3, CK1 and Aurora B. BI-D1870 exhibits anticancer attributes including the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increases in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy.
Cancer Sci, 2022, 113(1):132-144
EMBO J, 2021, 40(7):e106106
Cell Rep, 2021, 37(12):110137
S3238 Resibufogenin Resibufogenin (Bufogenin, Recibufogenin), a component of huachansu with anticancer effect, triggers necroptosis through upregulating receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) and phosphorylating mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein at Ser358. Resibufogenin exerts cytotoxic effect by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Resibufogenin induces apoptosis and caspase-3 and caspase-8 activity. Resibufogenin increases Bax/Bcl-2 expression, and suppresses cyclin D1, cyclin E, PI3K, p-AKT, p-GSK3β and β-catenin protein expression.
Phytomedicine, 2022, 102:154182
S3357 Elaidic acid

Elaidic acid is a major trans fatty acid that inhibits cell viability, elevates cell apoptosis by enhancing oxidative stress. Elaidic acid can be used as a pharmaceutical solvent.

S3607 Sarsasapogenin Sarsasapogenin (SAR, Parigenin) is a steroidal sapogenin. It can provoke the generation of reactive oxygen species and activate unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathways. SAR potently inhibits NF-κB and MAPK activation, as well as IRAK1, TAK1, and IκBα phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated macrophages.
S4425 Rifamycin S Rifamycin S, a quinone and an antibiotic against Gram-positive bacteria (including MRSA), is a clinical drug used to treat tuberculosis and leprosy. Rifamycin S generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibits microsomal lipid peroxidation.
S5263 Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt Pyrroloquinoline quinone (methoxatin disodium salt), an aromatic tricyclic o-quinone, is a redox cofactor for bacterial dehydrogenases. It is an efficient electron transfer catalyst from a number of organic substrates to molecular oxygen (O2), constructing quinoprotein model reactions.
S5452 Sanguinarine chloride Sanguinarine, a plant alkaloid, is a potent and specific protein phosphatase (PP) 2C inhibitor. Sanguinarine chloride can stimulate apoptosis via activating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sanguinarine-induced apoptosis is associated with the activation of JNK and NF-κB.
Front Pharmacol, 2021, 12:638215
S5584 Citronellol Citronellol (Dihydrogeraniol, (±)-β-Citronellol), a constituent of rose and geranium oils, is used in perfumes and insect repellents. Citronellol can cause necrotic apoptosis of NCI-H1299 cells by up-regulating TNF-α, RIP1 / RIP3 activities, and down-regulating caspase-3 / caspase-8 activities. Citronellol also results in a biphasic increase in ROS production at 1 h and at 12 h in NCI-H1299 cells.
S6871 Sodium oxamate Sodium oxamate (SO, Aminooxoacetic acid, Oxamic acid) is an inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) that specificly inhibits LDH‑A. Sodium oxamate (SO) induces G2/M cell cycle arrest via downregulation of the CDK1/cyclin B1 pathway and promotes apoptosis through enhancement of mitochondrial ROS generation.
Aging (Albany NY), 2021, 13(24):25920-25930
Int J Biol Sci, 2021, 17(11):2756-2769
S7309 BAY 87-2243 BAY 87-2243 is a potent and selective hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) inhibitor. BAY 87-2243 inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity, thus triggering a mitophagy-dependent ROS increase leading to necroptosis and ferroptosis. BAY 87-2243 exerts antitumor activity. Phase 1.
J Immunother Cancer, 2022, 10(3)e004414
Nitric Oxide, 2022, 124:1-14
Theranostics, 2021, 11(1):209-221
S7913 MCB-613 MCB-613 is a potent steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) stimulator.
S8615 Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA, Dichloroacetic acid, bichloroacetic acid, BCA), a specific inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) with IC50 values of 183 and 80 μM for PDK2 and PDK4 respectively, has been shown to derepress Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter and a mitochondrial potassium-ion channel axis. Sodium dichloroacetate increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, triggers apoptosis in cancer cells, and inhibits tumor growth.
Nat Commun, 2022, 13(1):1417
Mol Oncol, 2022, 16(1):219-249
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2021, 40(1):87
S8661 CA3 (CIL56) CA3 (CIL56) has potent inhibitory effects on YAP1/Tead transcriptional activity and primarily targets YAP1 high and therapy-resistant esophageal adenocarcinoma cells endowed with CSC properties. CA3(CIL56) induces ferroptosis and iron-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS).
Cell Rep, 2022, 38(7):110390
Cancers (Basel), 2022, 14(11)2733
Sci Rep, 2022, 12(1):45
S9611 ABTL-0812 ABTL0812 (α-Hydroxylinoleic acid, LP-10218, SCLN-0812) inhibits Akt/mTOR axis by inducing the overexpression of TRIB3 and activating autophagy in lung squamous carcinoma cell lines. ABTL0812 also induces AMPK activation and ROS accumulation.
S2399 Dihydromyricetin Dihydromyricetin (Ampelopsin, Ampeloptin) is a natural antioxidant flavonoid from Ampelopsis grossedentata.
Molecules, 2021, 26(5)1210
Cell Signal, 2020, 65:109431
J Med Virol, 2019, 91(8):1440-1447
S3301 Cynarin Cynarin (Cynarine) is an artichoke phytochemical that possesses a variety of pharmacological features including free-radical scavenging, antioxidant, antihistamic and antiviral activities. Cynarin blocks the interaction between the CD28 of T-cell receptor and CD80 of antigen presenting cells. Cynarin triggers Nrf2 nuclear translocation, restores the balance of glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inhibits mitochondrial depolarization.
S4263 Efaproxiral Sodium Efaproxiral Sodium is a synthetic allosteric modifier of hemoglobin, decreases Hb-oxygen (O2) binding affinity and enhances oxygenation of hypoxic tumours during radiation therapy. Efaproxiral Sodium is used for brain metastases originating from breast cancer.
S4419 Ensulizole Ensulizole (PBSA), a water soluble sunscreen ingredient, is a sulfonated UV absorber which is characterized by intense UVB and partial UVA absorption. Ensulizole can damage the DNA through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon UV or sunlight irradiation.
S5804 N-Acetylcysteine amide N-acetylcysteine amide is a membrane penetrating antioxidant with anti-inflamatory activity through regulation of activation of NF-κB and HIF-1α as well as modulation of ROS.
Nat Commun, 2021, 12(1):647
Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2020, 121:105703
Pancreatology, 2019, 19(2):258-265
S2062 Tiopronin Tiopronin is an antioxidant agent, used for the treatment of cystinuria by controlling the rate of cystine precipitation and excretion.
S2332 Neohesperidin Neohesperidin (NSC 31048), a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits, is an antioxidant agent.
Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci, 2021, 101461
Eur J Pharmacol, 2019, 864:172712
J Med Virol, 2019, 91(8):1440-1447
S2605 Idebenone Idebenone (CV-2619) is a synthetic analog of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and a brain stimulant.
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2021, S2352-345X(21)00196-X
S3222 Raspberry ketone glucoside Raspberry ketone glucoside (RKG), a natural product in raspberry fruit, is an antioxidant that has the inhibitory effect on the melanin synthesis.
S3632 Trichloroisocyanuric acid Trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) is a safe and efficient reagent, useful for chlorination and oxidation reactions.
S3838 Carnosic acid Carnosic acid (Salvin) is a phenolic diterpene, endowed with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. It is increasingly used within food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries.
Am J Cancer Res, 2020, 1;10(5):1442-1454
J Reprod Dev, 2020, 10.1262/jrd.2020-086
S3840 Baohuoside I Baohuoside I (Icariside II) is a flavonoid isolated from Epimedium koreanum Nakai with anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. It may exert cytotoxic effect via the ROS/MAPK pathway.
S3885 Pyrogallol Pyrogallol (1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene), an organic compound belonging to the phenol family, used as a photographic film developer and in the preparation of other chemicals. It is known to be a superoxide anion generator and ROS inducer.
Parasit Vectors, 2020, 13(1):449
S4511 6-Benzylaminopurine 6-Benzylaminopurine is a first-generation synthetic cytokinin which could regulate the activities of the antioxidant defense system of plants.Its treatment elicits plant growth and development.
S4580 Hydroquinone Hydroquinone (Quinol, 1,4-Benzenediol, 1,4-Dihydroxybenzene, HQ) is a Melanin Synthesis Inhibitor. The physiologic effect of hydroquinone is by means of Depigmenting Activity. It also posesses antioxidant properties that can cause toxicity in several organs, notably the kidney.
Theranostics, 2022, 12(5):2063-2079
Neurotox Res, 2020, 2
S4970 Nerol Nerol (Cis-Geraniol, Neryl alcohol) is a monoterpene found in many essential oils such as lemongrass and hops. Nerol has antifungal activity, Nerol can trigger mitochondrial dysfunction and disruption via elevation of Ca2+ and ROS leading to apoptosis.
S5314 HTHQ (1-O-Hexyl-2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone) HTHQ (1-O-Hexyl-2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone), which is a hydroquinone monoalkylether, is a potent anti-oxidative and anti-lipid-peroxidative agent. HTHQ(1-O-Hexyl-2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone) has considerable anti-oxidative activity by directly reacting with reactive oxygen species (ROS), including peroxyl radicals, and scavenging them to form more stable free radicals.
S5709 Norgestrel Norgestrel (WY-3707, SH-70850, SH-850, FH 122-A) is synthetic steroidal progestin that is used in combination with ethinyl estradiol for oral contraception. It also has strong neuroprotective activity.
S7551 Piperlongumine Piperlongumine (PPLGM, Piplartine), a natural alkaloid from Piper longum L., increases the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and selectively kills cancer cells. It is a direct TrxR1 inhibitor with suppressive activity against gastric cancer and a novel inhibitor of CRM1; also an inhibitor of PI3K/Akt/mTOR in human breast cancer cells.
Nat Chem Biol, 2022, 10.1038/s41589-022-00996-7
Nat Commun, 2022, 13(1):107
SLAS Discov, 2021, 24725552211020678
S9021 (20R)Ginsenoside Rg3 (20R)Ginsenoside Rg3 is extracted from traditional Chinese medicine, red ginseng. It has a role as an antioxidant and a plant metabolite.
Bioorg Chem, 2021, 111:104844
J Agric Food Chem, 2021, 69(21):6073-6086
Environ Toxicol, 2020, 10.1002/tox.22899
S9034 Isochlorogenic acid C Isochlorogenic acid C (3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acid; 4,5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid), which is a di-O-caffeoyl derivative of chlorogenic acid, is a well-known antioxidant from herbal plants and shows anti-viral effects against EV71.
S9687 H2DCFDA H2DCFDA (DCFH-DA, 2',7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) is a cell-permeable probe used to detect intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.
Hematol Oncol, 2022, 10.1002/hon.3007
S0947 Cafestol Cafestol is a natural diterpenes extracted from coffee beans. Cafestol induces apoptosis and regulates a variety of inflammatory mediators to reduce inflammation. Cafestol inhibits PI3K/Akt pathway. Cafestol also can reduce the production of ROS in the leukemia cell line HL60.
S1547 Febuxostat Febuxostat (TMX 67, TEI-6720) is a selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor with Ki of 0.6 nM.
Toxicol Sci, 2022, kfac073
J Proteome Res, 2021, 20(6):3134-3149
Viruses, 2020, 12(10)E1067
S1623 Acetylcysteine (N-acetylcysteine) Acetylcysteine (N-acetyl-l-cysteine, NAC) is a ROS(reactive oxygen species) inhibitor that antagonizes the activity of proteasome inhibitors. It is also a tumor necrosis factor production inhibitor. Acetylcysteine(N-acetyl-l-cysteine) suppresses TNF-induced NF-κB activation through inhibition of IκB kinases. Acetylcysteine(N-acetyl-l-cysteine) induces apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway. Acetylcysteine(N-acetyl-l-cysteine) inhibits ferroptosis and virus replication.Solutions of Acetylcysteine are best fresh-prepared.
Immunity, 2022, 55(7):1185-1199.e8
EMBO Mol Med, 2022, 14(2):e14903
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2022, 41(1):41
S1630 Allopurinol Allopurinol is a purine analog inhibitor of the enzyme xanthine oxidase, used to treat gout or kidney stones, and to decrease levels of uric acid.
Hum Cell, 2022, 10.1007/s13577-022-00671-y
J Reprod Immunol, 2021, 149:103457
J Proteome Res, 2021, 20(6):3134-3149
S1631 Allopurinol Sodium Allopurinol Sodium is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor with an IC50 of 7.82±0.12 μM.
J Reprod Immunol, 2021, 149:103457
Nat Commun, 2020, 11(1):481
Reproduction, 2020, 159(1):73-80
S2369 Troxerutin Troxerutin, a natural bioflavonoid isolated from Sophora japonica, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. Troxerutin, also known as vitamin P4, is a tri-hydroxyethylated derivative of natural bioflavonoid rutins which can inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depress ER stress-mediated NOD activation.
Food Funct, 2019, 10(8):5059-5069
S3205 Perillaldehyde Perillaldehyde (Perilladehyde, Perillal, PAE, PA), the main component of Perilla frutescens (a traditional medicinal antioxidant herb), inhibits BaP-induced AHR activation and ROS production, inhibits BaP/AHR-mediated release of the CCL2 chemokine, and activats the NRF2/HO1 antioxidant pathway.
S3578 Pyrroloquinoline quinone Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ, Methoxatin) is a natural anti-oxidant with anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects. Pyrroloquinoline quinone prevents estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis.
S3590 Triolein Triolein is an inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and reduces both the expression of IL-6 and ROS generation in irradiated keratinocytes.
S3616 Asiaticoside Asiaticoside (Ba 2742, BRN0078195, CCRIS8995, NSC166062, Emdecassol,Madecassol), the major active principle of Centella asiatica, prevents ultraviolet A-dependent photoaging by suppressing ultraviolet A-induced reactive oxygen species production. It also decreases DNA binding by MITF.
Med Sci Monit, 2020, 26:e924435
S3631 (S)-Methylisothiourea sulfate (S)-Methylisothiourea sulfate is a potent inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS).
Mol Immunol, 2020, 117:189-200
S3816 Dehydroevodiamine Dehydroevodiamine (DHED), a constituent of Evodia rutaecarpa, has various biological effects such as hypotensive, negative chronotropic, ion channel depressant, inhibition of nitric oxide production and cerebral blood flow enhancing activities. Dehydroevodiamine inhibits LPS-induced iNOS, COX-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) expression in murine macrophage cells.
S3973 L-SelenoMethionine L-SelenoMethionine (SeMet), a naturally occurring amino acid, is a major food-form of selenium. It has been used as a supplement, and exhibits some important functions like cancer prevention and antioxidative defense.
S4017 Allylthiourea Allylthiourea is a metabolic inhibitor that selective inhibits ammonia oxidation.
S4074 Sodium Nitrite Sodium nitrite is a myeloperoxidase inhibitor with IC50 of 1.3 μM.
S4603 Gallic acid Gallic acid (3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzoic acid, Gallate, Benzoic acid), known as powerful antioxidants, is an organic acid found in a variety of foods and herbs.
J Nutr Biochem, 2015, 26(11):1379-84
S4853 Ecabet sodium Ecabet sodium (TA-2711, TA-2711E) is a widely employed mucoprotective agent for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Ecabet sodium inhibits the ability of Helicobacter pylori to induce neutrophil production of reactive oxygen species and interleukin-8, Ecabet sodium can also reduce apoptosis.
S5771 Sulforaphane Sulforaphane is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate derived from the consumption of cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, and kale. It is an inducer of Nrf2. Sulforaphane is also an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and NF-κB. Sulforaphane increases heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and reduces the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sulforaphane induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
Cell Mol Immunol, 2022, 19(8):872-882
Elife, 2022, 11e67368
Cell Death Discov, 2021, 7(1):375
S6281 Sodium Thiocyanate Sodium Thiocyanate (NaSCN, Sodium rhodanide, Sodium sulfocyanate, Sodium rhodanate), one of the main sources of the thiocyanate anion, is used as a precursor for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other specialty chemicals. Sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN) reduces IL-6, whereas increases IL-10 levels. Sodium thiocyanate also reduces ROS.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2022, 2022:8315503
S6920 SEA0400 SEA0400 is a selective and potent inhibitor of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) that inhibits Na+-dependent Ca2+ uptake in cultured neurons, astrocytes, and microglia with IC50 of 33 nM, 5.0 nM and 8.3 nM, respectively. SEA0400 prevents sodium nitroprusside (SNP) from increasing ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in an extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent manner.
S7171 Setanaxib (GKT137831) Setanaxib (GKT137831, GKT831) is a potent, dual NADPH oxidase NOX1/NOX4 inhibitor with Ki of 110 nM and 140 nM, respectively. Treatment with GKT137831 suppresses reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. GKT137831 partly inhibits ferroptosis.
Cell Chem Biol, 2022, S2451-9456(22)00127-1
Cell Death Dis, 2022, 13(4):371
Antioxidants (Basel), 2022, 11(3)513
S7873 Disodium (R)-2-Hydroxyglutarate Disodium (R)-2-Hydroxyglutarate (D-α-Hydroxyglutaric acid disodium) is a competitive inhibitor of α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases with Ki of 10.87 ± 1.85 mM.
Cell Mol Immunol, 2022, 10.1038/s41423-022-00842-9
Mol Ther, 2022, S1525-0016(22)00007-7
Cell Metab, 2021, 33(1):110-127.e5
S8639 Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) is an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase and also a potent, irreversible, and time-, temperature-dependent iNOS/eNOS inhibitor. Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) also functions as a TRPA1 activator and selectively inhibits intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS).
Nat Biotechnol, 2022, 10.1038/s41587-021-01169-y
Immunity, 2022, 55(7):1185-1199.e8
Bioeng Transl Med, 2022, 7(2):e10276
S8974 GSK2795039 GSK2795039 is an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) with pIC50 of 6.57 for NOX2-mediated activation of HRP/Amplex Red. GSK2795039 inhibits reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, NADPH consumption and reduces apoptosis.
Sci Total Environ, 2022, 838(Pt 2):155825
S8978 Mitoquinone (MitoQ10) mesylate Mitoquinone mesylate (MitoQ, MitoQ10, Mitoubiquinone) is a TPP-based, mitochondria-targeted antioxidant that blocks H2O2-induced intracellular ROS responses and protects against oxidative damage. This product is a waxy solid.
Immunity, 2022, S1074-7613(22)00280-1
Immunity, 2022, 55(7):1185-1199.e8
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2022, 41(1):83
S9107 Glycitein Glycitein is an aglycone isoflavone found in soy and red clover and exhibits a wide variety of beneficial properties, including neuroprotective, antioxidative, anticancer, anti-osteoporotic, and anti-atherosclerotic activities.
S0056 (E/Z)-BCI (E/Z)-BCI (BCI, NSC 150117) is an inhibitor of dual specific phosphatase 1/6 (DUSP1/DUSP6) and mitogen-activated protein kinase with EC50 of 13.3 μM and 8.0 μM for DUSP6 and DUSP1 in cells, respectively. (E)-BCI induces apoptosis via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of intrinsic mitochondrial pathway in H1299 lung cancer cells.
S0770 Camalexin Camalexin, a phytoalexin isolated from Camelina sativa and Arabidopsis (Cruciferae), can induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Camalexin has antibacterial, antifungal, antiproliferative and anticancer activities.
S1046 Vandetanib (ZD6474) Vandetanib (ZD6474) is a potent inhibitor of VEGFR2 with IC50 of 40 nM in a cell-free assay. It also inhibits VEGFR3 and EGFR with IC50 of 110 nM and 500 nM, respectively. Not sensitive to PDGFRβ, Flt1, Tie-2 and FGFR1 with IC50 of 1.1-3.6 μM. No activity against MEK, CDK2, c-Kit, erbB2, FAK, PDK1, Akt and IGF-1R with IC50 above 10 μM. Vandetanib (ZD6474) increases apoptosis and induces autophagy by increasing the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
Cancer Res, 2022, canres.1397.2021
Hum Cell, 2022, 10.1007/s13577-022-00671-y
Cell Rep Med, 2022, 3(1):100492
S2271 Berberine chloride (NSC 646666) Berberine chloride (NSC 646666, Natural Yellow 18) is a quaternary ammonium salt from the group of isoquinoline alkaloids. Berberine activates caspase 3 and caspase 8, cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and the release of cytochrome c. Berberine chloride decreases the expression of c-IAP1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Berberine chloride induces apoptosis with sustained phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, as well as generation of the ROS. Berberine chloride is a dual topoisomerase I and II inhibitor. Berberine chloride is also a potential autophagy modulator.
J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2022, 1-11
Front Pharmacol, 2021, 12:632201
Molecules, 2021, 26(5)1210
S2843 BI-D1870 BI-D1870 is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of S6 ribosome for RSK1/2/3/4 with IC50 of 31 nM/24 nM/18 nM/15 nM in cell-free assays, respectively; 10- to 100-fold selectivity for RSK than MST2, GSK-3β, MARK3, CK1 and Aurora B. BI-D1870 exhibits anticancer attributes including the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increases in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy.
Cancer Sci, 2022, 113(1):132-144
EMBO J, 2021, 40(7):e106106
Cell Rep, 2021, 37(12):110137
S3238 Resibufogenin Resibufogenin (Bufogenin, Recibufogenin), a component of huachansu with anticancer effect, triggers necroptosis through upregulating receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) and phosphorylating mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein at Ser358. Resibufogenin exerts cytotoxic effect by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Resibufogenin induces apoptosis and caspase-3 and caspase-8 activity. Resibufogenin increases Bax/Bcl-2 expression, and suppresses cyclin D1, cyclin E, PI3K, p-AKT, p-GSK3β and β-catenin protein expression.
Phytomedicine, 2022, 102:154182
S3357 Elaidic acid

Elaidic acid is a major trans fatty acid that inhibits cell viability, elevates cell apoptosis by enhancing oxidative stress. Elaidic acid can be used as a pharmaceutical solvent.

S3607 Sarsasapogenin Sarsasapogenin (SAR, Parigenin) is a steroidal sapogenin. It can provoke the generation of reactive oxygen species and activate unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathways. SAR potently inhibits NF-κB and MAPK activation, as well as IRAK1, TAK1, and IκBα phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated macrophages.
S4425 Rifamycin S Rifamycin S, a quinone and an antibiotic against Gram-positive bacteria (including MRSA), is a clinical drug used to treat tuberculosis and leprosy. Rifamycin S generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibits microsomal lipid peroxidation.
S5263 Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt Pyrroloquinoline quinone (methoxatin disodium salt), an aromatic tricyclic o-quinone, is a redox cofactor for bacterial dehydrogenases. It is an efficient electron transfer catalyst from a number of organic substrates to molecular oxygen (O2), constructing quinoprotein model reactions.
S5452 Sanguinarine chloride Sanguinarine, a plant alkaloid, is a potent and specific protein phosphatase (PP) 2C inhibitor. Sanguinarine chloride can stimulate apoptosis via activating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sanguinarine-induced apoptosis is associated with the activation of JNK and NF-κB.
Front Pharmacol, 2021, 12:638215
S5584 Citronellol Citronellol (Dihydrogeraniol, (±)-β-Citronellol), a constituent of rose and geranium oils, is used in perfumes and insect repellents. Citronellol can cause necrotic apoptosis of NCI-H1299 cells by up-regulating TNF-α, RIP1 / RIP3 activities, and down-regulating caspase-3 / caspase-8 activities. Citronellol also results in a biphasic increase in ROS production at 1 h and at 12 h in NCI-H1299 cells.
S6871 Sodium oxamate Sodium oxamate (SO, Aminooxoacetic acid, Oxamic acid) is an inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) that specificly inhibits LDH‑A. Sodium oxamate (SO) induces G2/M cell cycle arrest via downregulation of the CDK1/cyclin B1 pathway and promotes apoptosis through enhancement of mitochondrial ROS generation.
Aging (Albany NY), 2021, 13(24):25920-25930
Int J Biol Sci, 2021, 17(11):2756-2769
S7309 BAY 87-2243 BAY 87-2243 is a potent and selective hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) inhibitor. BAY 87-2243 inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity, thus triggering a mitophagy-dependent ROS increase leading to necroptosis and ferroptosis. BAY 87-2243 exerts antitumor activity. Phase 1.
J Immunother Cancer, 2022, 10(3)e004414
Nitric Oxide, 2022, 124:1-14
Theranostics, 2021, 11(1):209-221
S7913 MCB-613 MCB-613 is a potent steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) stimulator.
S8615 Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA, Dichloroacetic acid, bichloroacetic acid, BCA), a specific inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) with IC50 values of 183 and 80 μM for PDK2 and PDK4 respectively, has been shown to derepress Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter and a mitochondrial potassium-ion channel axis. Sodium dichloroacetate increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, triggers apoptosis in cancer cells, and inhibits tumor growth.
Nat Commun, 2022, 13(1):1417
Mol Oncol, 2022, 16(1):219-249
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2021, 40(1):87
S8661 CA3 (CIL56) CA3 (CIL56) has potent inhibitory effects on YAP1/Tead transcriptional activity and primarily targets YAP1 high and therapy-resistant esophageal adenocarcinoma cells endowed with CSC properties. CA3(CIL56) induces ferroptosis and iron-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS).
Cell Rep, 2022, 38(7):110390
Cancers (Basel), 2022, 14(11)2733
Sci Rep, 2022, 12(1):45
S9611 ABTL-0812 ABTL0812 (α-Hydroxylinoleic acid, LP-10218, SCLN-0812) inhibits Akt/mTOR axis by inducing the overexpression of TRIB3 and activating autophagy in lung squamous carcinoma cell lines. ABTL0812 also induces AMPK activation and ROS accumulation.
S2399 Dihydromyricetin Dihydromyricetin (Ampelopsin, Ampeloptin) is a natural antioxidant flavonoid from Ampelopsis grossedentata.
Molecules, 2021, 26(5)1210
Cell Signal, 2020, 65:109431
J Med Virol, 2019, 91(8):1440-1447
S3301 Cynarin Cynarin (Cynarine) is an artichoke phytochemical that possesses a variety of pharmacological features including free-radical scavenging, antioxidant, antihistamic and antiviral activities. Cynarin blocks the interaction between the CD28 of T-cell receptor and CD80 of antigen presenting cells. Cynarin triggers Nrf2 nuclear translocation, restores the balance of glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inhibits mitochondrial depolarization.
S4263 Efaproxiral Sodium Efaproxiral Sodium is a synthetic allosteric modifier of hemoglobin, decreases Hb-oxygen (O2) binding affinity and enhances oxygenation of hypoxic tumours during radiation therapy. Efaproxiral Sodium is used for brain metastases originating from breast cancer.
S4419 Ensulizole Ensulizole (PBSA), a water soluble sunscreen ingredient, is a sulfonated UV absorber which is characterized by intense UVB and partial UVA absorption. Ensulizole can damage the DNA through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon UV or sunlight irradiation.
S5804 N-Acetylcysteine amide N-acetylcysteine amide is a membrane penetrating antioxidant with anti-inflamatory activity through regulation of activation of NF-κB and HIF-1α as well as modulation of ROS.
Nat Commun, 2021, 12(1):647
Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2020, 121:105703
Pancreatology, 2019, 19(2):258-265
Tags: ROS inhibitor|ROS agonist|ROS activator|ROS inducer|ROS antagonist|ROS signaling pathway|ROS assay kit