Rho

Signaling Pathway Map

Research Area

Inhibitory Selectivity

Isoform-specific Inhibitors

Rho Products

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S1573

Fasudil (HA-1077) HCl

Fasudil (HA-1077, AT-877), a potent and selective inhibitor of Rho kinase, displays less potent inhibiton over PKA, PKG, PKC and MLCK with Ki of 1.6, 1.6, 3.3, and 36 μM in cell-free assays, respectively. Fasudil is also a calcium channel blocker.

S1314

Zoledronic acid (ZOL 446)

Zoledronic acid (ZOL 446, ZA, Zoledronate, CGP-4244, GP42446A, Zometa, Zomera, Aclasta, Reclast), a potent osteoclast inhibitor, induces apoptosis in osteoclasts by inhibiting enzymes of the mevalonate pathway and preventing the isoprenylation of small GTP-binding proteins such as Ras and Rho. Zoledronic acid (ZA) also induces autophagy.

S8031

NSC 23766

NSC 23766 is an inhibitor of Rac GTPase targeting Rac activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) with IC50 of ~50 μM in a cell-free assay; does not inhibit the closely related targets, Cdc42 or RhoA.

S7319

EHop-016

EHop-016 is a specific Rac GTPase inhibitor with IC50 of 1.1 μM for Rac1 in MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231 cells, equally potent inhibition for Rac3.

S1721

Azathioprine

Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive drug, inhibiting purine synthesis and GTP-binding protein Rac1 activation, used in the treatment of organ transplantation and autoimmune diseases.

S6875New

CASIN

CASIN (Pirl1-related Compound 2) directly inhibits activation of Cdc42/RhoGDI with IC50 of 2 μM.

S6000New

CID44216842

CID44216842 (Cdc42-IN-1) is a potent Cdc42-selective guanine nucleotide binding lead inhibitor with EC50s of 1.0 μM and 1.2 μM for Cdc42WT and Cdc42Q61L mutant in GTP binding assay, respectively.

S7293

ZCL278

ZCL278 is a selective Cdc42 GTPase inhibitor with Kd of 11.4 μM.

S8749

MBQ-167

MBQ-167 is a potent and dual inhibitor of Rac and Cdc42 with IC50s of 103 nM and 78 nM respectively, in metastatic breast cancer cells.

S3233

Emetine hydrochloride

Emetine hydrochloride (NSC 33669), a principal alkaloid extracted from the root of ipecac clinically used as an emetic and antiprotozoal drug, reduces HIFs (hypoxia-inducible factors; HIF-1α and HIF-2α), PDK1, RhoA, Rho-kinases (ROCK1 and ROCK2) and BRD4. Emetine hydrochloride inhibits cellular autophagy and has anti-malarial, anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-amoebic effect.

S7719

CCG-1423

CCG-1423 is a specific RhoA pathway inhibitor, which inhibits SRF-mediated transcription.

S8469

CCG-203971

CCG-203971 is a novel small-molecule inhibitor of the Rho/MRTF/SRF pathway with the IC50 value of 0.64 μM for SRE.L. It inhibits Rho-mediated gene transcription.

S6673

CCG-222740

CCG-222740 is a Rho/MRTF pathway inhibitor. CCG-222740 decreases the activation of stellate cells in vitro and in vivo, by reducing the levels of alpha smooth muscle actin(α-SMA) expression.

S8988

Rhosin hydrochloride

Rhosin (G04) hydrochloride (HCl) is a potent, specific inhibitor of RhoA subfamily Rho GTPases with Kd of ~ 0.4 uM. Rhosin hydrochloride induces cell apoptosis.

S7482

EHT 1864 2HCl

EHT 1864 2HCl is a potent Rac family GTPase inhibitor with Kd of 40 nM, 50 nM, 60 nM and 250 nM for Rac1, Rac1b, Rac2 and Rac3, respectively.

S7686

ML141

ML141 (CID-2950007) is demonstrated to be a potent, selective and reversible non-competitive inhibitor of Cdc42 GTPase suitable for in vitro assays, with IC50 of 200 nM and selectivity against other members of the Rho family of GTPases (Rac1, Rab2, Rab7). ML141 is associated with an increase in p38 activation and may induce p38-dependent apoptosis/senescence. ML141 also protects neuroblastoma cells from metformin-induced apoptosis.

S0890

MLS000532223

MLS000532223 is a high affinity, selective inhibitor of Rho family GTPases with EC50 ranging from 16 μM to 120 μM.

S5244

Zoledronic acid monohydrate

Zoledronic acid (Zoledronate, CGP-4244) monohydrate, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, is a potent osteoclast inhibitor which induces apoptosis in osteoclasts by inhibiting enzymes of the mevalonate pathway and preventing the isoprenylation of small GTP-binding proteins such as Ras and Rho.

S6752

Y16

Y16 is an inhibitor of G-protein-coupled Rho GEFs. It blocks the binding of LARG, a DBL-family Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor, with Rho (Kd = 80 nM).

S0765

MAZ51

MAZ51 is a potent and selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-3 (Flt-4) tyrosine kinase. MAZ51 induces cell rounding and G2/M cell cycle arrest in glioma cells through phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β and activation of RhoA. MAZ51 inhibits the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of a variety of non-VEGFR-3-expressing tumor cell lines.

E0102New

I-191

I-191 is a potent PAR2 antagonist that inhibits multiple PAR2-induced signaling pathways and functional responses. I-191 also inhibits ERK1/2 phosphorylation, RhoA activation, and inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation induced by micromolar concentrations of biased ligand GB88.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S1573

Fasudil (HA-1077) HCl

Fasudil (HA-1077, AT-877), a potent and selective inhibitor of Rho kinase, displays less potent inhibiton over PKA, PKG, PKC and MLCK with Ki of 1.6, 1.6, 3.3, and 36 μM in cell-free assays, respectively. Fasudil is also a calcium channel blocker.

S1314

Zoledronic acid (ZOL 446)

Zoledronic acid (ZOL 446, ZA, Zoledronate, CGP-4244, GP42446A, Zometa, Zomera, Aclasta, Reclast), a potent osteoclast inhibitor, induces apoptosis in osteoclasts by inhibiting enzymes of the mevalonate pathway and preventing the isoprenylation of small GTP-binding proteins such as Ras and Rho. Zoledronic acid (ZA) also induces autophagy.

S8031

NSC 23766

NSC 23766 is an inhibitor of Rac GTPase targeting Rac activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) with IC50 of ~50 μM in a cell-free assay; does not inhibit the closely related targets, Cdc42 or RhoA.

S7319

EHop-016

EHop-016 is a specific Rac GTPase inhibitor with IC50 of 1.1 μM for Rac1 in MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231 cells, equally potent inhibition for Rac3.

S1721

Azathioprine

Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive drug, inhibiting purine synthesis and GTP-binding protein Rac1 activation, used in the treatment of organ transplantation and autoimmune diseases.

S6875New

CASIN

CASIN (Pirl1-related Compound 2) directly inhibits activation of Cdc42/RhoGDI with IC50 of 2 μM.

S6000New

CID44216842

CID44216842 (Cdc42-IN-1) is a potent Cdc42-selective guanine nucleotide binding lead inhibitor with EC50s of 1.0 μM and 1.2 μM for Cdc42WT and Cdc42Q61L mutant in GTP binding assay, respectively.

S7293

ZCL278

ZCL278 is a selective Cdc42 GTPase inhibitor with Kd of 11.4 μM.

S8749

MBQ-167

MBQ-167 is a potent and dual inhibitor of Rac and Cdc42 with IC50s of 103 nM and 78 nM respectively, in metastatic breast cancer cells.

S3233

Emetine hydrochloride

Emetine hydrochloride (NSC 33669), a principal alkaloid extracted from the root of ipecac clinically used as an emetic and antiprotozoal drug, reduces HIFs (hypoxia-inducible factors; HIF-1α and HIF-2α), PDK1, RhoA, Rho-kinases (ROCK1 and ROCK2) and BRD4. Emetine hydrochloride inhibits cellular autophagy and has anti-malarial, anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-amoebic effect.

S7719

CCG-1423

CCG-1423 is a specific RhoA pathway inhibitor, which inhibits SRF-mediated transcription.

S8469

CCG-203971

CCG-203971 is a novel small-molecule inhibitor of the Rho/MRTF/SRF pathway with the IC50 value of 0.64 μM for SRE.L. It inhibits Rho-mediated gene transcription.

S6673

CCG-222740

CCG-222740 is a Rho/MRTF pathway inhibitor. CCG-222740 decreases the activation of stellate cells in vitro and in vivo, by reducing the levels of alpha smooth muscle actin(α-SMA) expression.

S8988

Rhosin hydrochloride

Rhosin (G04) hydrochloride (HCl) is a potent, specific inhibitor of RhoA subfamily Rho GTPases with Kd of ~ 0.4 uM. Rhosin hydrochloride induces cell apoptosis.

S7482

EHT 1864 2HCl

EHT 1864 2HCl is a potent Rac family GTPase inhibitor with Kd of 40 nM, 50 nM, 60 nM and 250 nM for Rac1, Rac1b, Rac2 and Rac3, respectively.

S7686

ML141

ML141 (CID-2950007) is demonstrated to be a potent, selective and reversible non-competitive inhibitor of Cdc42 GTPase suitable for in vitro assays, with IC50 of 200 nM and selectivity against other members of the Rho family of GTPases (Rac1, Rab2, Rab7). ML141 is associated with an increase in p38 activation and may induce p38-dependent apoptosis/senescence. ML141 also protects neuroblastoma cells from metformin-induced apoptosis.

S0890

MLS000532223

MLS000532223 is a high affinity, selective inhibitor of Rho family GTPases with EC50 ranging from 16 μM to 120 μM.

S5244

Zoledronic acid monohydrate

Zoledronic acid (Zoledronate, CGP-4244) monohydrate, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, is a potent osteoclast inhibitor which induces apoptosis in osteoclasts by inhibiting enzymes of the mevalonate pathway and preventing the isoprenylation of small GTP-binding proteins such as Ras and Rho.

S6752

Y16

Y16 is an inhibitor of G-protein-coupled Rho GEFs. It blocks the binding of LARG, a DBL-family Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor, with Rho (Kd = 80 nM).

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S0765

MAZ51

MAZ51 is a potent and selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-3 (Flt-4) tyrosine kinase. MAZ51 induces cell rounding and G2/M cell cycle arrest in glioma cells through phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β and activation of RhoA. MAZ51 inhibits the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of a variety of non-VEGFR-3-expressing tumor cell lines.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
E0102New

I-191

I-191 is a potent PAR2 antagonist that inhibits multiple PAR2-induced signaling pathways and functional responses. I-191 also inhibits ERK1/2 phosphorylation, RhoA activation, and inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation induced by micromolar concentrations of biased ligand GB88.