Probenecid

Catalog No.S4022 Synonyms: Benemid

For research use only.

Probenecid (Benemid) is a classical competitive inhibitor of organic anion transport, which is also a TRPV2 agonist and an inhibitor of TAS2R16. Probenecid is also a clinically used broad-spectrum Pannexin1 (Panx1) blocker.

Probenecid  Chemical Structure

CAS No. 57-66-9

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Biological Activity

Description Probenecid (Benemid) is a classical competitive inhibitor of organic anion transport, which is also a TRPV2 agonist and an inhibitor of TAS2R16. Probenecid is also a clinically used broad-spectrum Pannexin1 (Panx1) blocker.
Targets
organic anion transport [1]
()
TRPV2 [2]
()
TAS2R16 [4]
()
In vitro

Probenecid is able to prevent the efflux of calcium-sensitive fluorescent dyes during studies of cellular calcium mobilization. Probenecid (2.5 mM) is found to block the export of Fura-2 from 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, and does not change the basal calcium concentration or the muscarinic calcium response. [1] Probenecid is a potent transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) agonist. Probenecid selectively induces increase in intracellular Ca2+ influx in HEK293T cells transiently expressing exogenous TRPV2. [2] Probenecid is able to interact with organic anion transporters (OAT). 0.1 mM Probenecid efficiently inhibits ATP-dependent active vesicular N-ethylmaleimide glutathione (NEM-GS) uptake by Human Multidrug Resistance Proteins 1 (MRP1) and MRP2. In isolated Sf9 cell membranes, Probenecid stimulates ATPase activity of MRP2 with approximate KACT of 250 μM, but inhibits ATPase activity of MRP1. [3] Probenecid is an inhibitor of the hTAS2R16, hTAS2R38, and hTAS2R43 bitter taste receptors. 1 mM Probenecid attenuates saccharin-induced calcium flux responses of hTAS2R16 to near baseline levels. Probenecid dose-dependently inhibits hTAS2R16 (in the presence of 3 mM salicin) and hTAS2R38 (in the presence of 300 μM PTC). This activity is independent of Probenecid's activity as a transport inhibitor, but is concerning with Probenecid interaction with the receptor. [4]

In vivo

Probenecid is an inhibitor of organic transport in vivo. Probenecid is able to decrease the renal clearance of antibiotic, such as penicillin, which enhances serum levels of antibiotic. Probenecid enhances the renal excretion of urate by acting as a competitive inhibitor of OAT, which prevents OAT-mediated reuptake of uric acid from the urine to the serum. Probenecid is found to block acid metabolites from exiting the central nervous system, and is a competitive inhibitor of monoamine transport in the kidney, liver, and the eye. [5]

Protocol (from reference)

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro

DMSO 57 mg/mL
(199.74 mM)
Water Insoluble
Ethanol ''22 mg/mL

* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 285.36
Formula

C13H19NO4S

CAS No. 57-66-9
Storage 3 years -20°C powder
2 years -80°C in solvent
Smiles CCCN(CCC)S(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C=C1)C(=O)O

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Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next add μL Corn oil, mix and clarify.

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Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment Interventions Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT05082909 Not yet recruiting Drug: Probenecid Infection Bacterial Imperial College London October 2021 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT04939623 Not yet recruiting Drug: Probenecid Chronic Pain|Drug Dependence of Morphine Type|Symptom Withdrawal University of Calgary September 2 2021 Phase 2|Phase 3
NCT01428284 Completed Drug: Canagliflozin/Probenecid Healthy Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development L.L.C. August 2011 Phase 1

(data from https://clinicaltrials.gov, updated on 2022-01-17)

Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

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