For research use only.
CAS No. 315183-21-2
PAC-1 is a potent procaspase-3 activator with EC50 of 0.22 μM and the first small molecule known to directly activate procaspase-3 to caspase-3.
Selleck's PAC-1 has been cited by 9 publications
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The effects of PAC-1 (activator of ROS) administration on the newborn pups' weight and the plasma IGF-1 and ROS levels in graviditas gp91phox-/- mice. The values are presented as the means ± SD derived from six animals. *P<0.05 in comparison to the non-treatment mice.
Biol Med, 2015, 7(5).doi: 10.4172/0974-8369.1000259.. PAC-1 purchased from Selleck.
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|Description||PAC-1 is a potent procaspase-3 activator with EC50 of 0.22 μM and the first small molecule known to directly activate procaspase-3 to caspase-3.|
|Features||The first small molecule known to directly activate procaspase-3 to caspase-3.|
PAC-1 activates procaspase-7 in a less efficient manner with EC50 of 4.5 μM. Elevated caspase 3 level in cancer cell lines allows PAC-1 to selectively induce apoptosis in a manner proportional to procaspase-3 concentration with IC50 of 0.35 μM for NCI-H226 cells to ~3.5 μM for UACC-62 cells. PAC-1 induces apoptosis in the primary cancerous cells with IC50 values of 3 nM to 1.41 μM, more potently than in the adjacent noncancerous cells with IC50 of 5.02 μM to 9.98 μM, which is also directly related to the distinct procaspase-3 concentration.  PAC-1 activates procaspase-3 by chelating zinc ions, thus relieving the zinc-mediated inhibition and allowing procaspase-3 to auto-activate itself to caspase-3.  PAC-1 is capable to induce cell death in Bax/Bak double-knockout cells and Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL-overexpressing cells with the same efficacy as its wild-type counterpart in a delayed manner. PAC-1 induces cytochrome c release in a caspase-3 independent manner, which subsequently triggers downstream caspase-3 activation and cell death. PAC-1 can not induce cell death and caspase-3 activation in Apaf-1 knockout cells, suggesting that apoptosome formation is essential for caspase-3 activation by PAC-1-mediated cell death. 
|In vivo||Administration of PAC-1 at 5 mg with low and steady releasing significantly inhibits the growth of ACHN renal cancer xenograft in mice. Oral administration of PAC-1 (50 or 100 mg/kg) significantly retards tumor growth of NCI-H226 lung cancer xenograft in a dose-dependent manner, and markedly prevents the cancer cells from infiltrating the lung tissue. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of PAC-1 is ascribed to procaspase-3 activation and subsequently apoptosis induction consistent with the activity in vitro. |
In vitro procaspase-3 activation:Procaspase-3 is expressed and purified in Escherichia coli. Various concentrations of PAC-1 are added to 90 μL of a 50 ng/mL of procaspase-3 in caspase assay buffer in a 96-well plate, The plate is incubated for 12 hours at 37 °C. A 10 μL volume of a 2 mM solution of caspase-3 peptidic substrate acetyl Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-p-nitroanilide (Ac-DEVD-pNa) in caspase assay buffer is then added to each well. The plate is read every 2 minutes at 405 nm for 2 hours in a Spectra Max Plus 384 well plate reader. The slope of the linear portion for each well is determined, and the relative increase in activation from untreated control wells is calculated.
|In vitro||DMSO||78 mg/mL (198.73 mM)|
|Ethanol||16 mg/mL (40.76 mM)|
|In vivo||Add solvents to the product individually and in order(Data is from Selleck tests instead of citations):
30% PEG400+0.5% Tween80+5% propylene glycol
For best results, use promptly after mixing.
* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.
In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)
|Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)|
|Dosage||mg/kg||Average weight of animals||g||Dosing volume per animal||ul||Number of animals|
|Step 2: Enter the in vivo formulation ()|
|% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O|
Working concentration： mg/ml；
Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: ： mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO (Master liquid concentration mg/mL，)
Method for preparing in vivo formulation：Take μL DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300， mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80，mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O，mix and clarify.
1.Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2.Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such as vortex, ultrasound or hot water bath can be used to aid dissolving.
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Mass (mg) = Concentration (mM) × Volume (mL) × Molecular Weight (g/mol)
*When preparing stock solutions, please always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the via label and SDS / COA (available on product pages).
Calculate the dilution required to prepare a stock solution. The Selleck dilution calculator is based on the following equation:
Concentration (start) x Volume (start) = Concentration (final) x Volume (final)
This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2 ( Input Output )
* When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and SDS / COA (available online).
Molecular Weight Calculator
Enter the chemical formula of a compound to calculate its molar mass and elemental composition:
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Molar mass (molar weight) is the mass of one mole of a substance and is expressed in g/mol.
Clinical Trial Information
|NCT Number||Recruitment||interventions||Conditions||Sponsor/Collaborators||Start Date||Phases|
|NCT04589832||Recruiting||Drug: PAC-1|Drug: Entrectinib||Uveal Melanoma||Arkadiusz Z. Dudek MD|HealthPartners Regions Cancer Care and Frauenshuh Cancer Care Centers|Vanquish Oncology Inc.|Genentech Inc.|Midwest Melanoma Partnership|Hoosier Cancer Research Network||January 11 2021||Phase 1|Phase 2|
|NCT03927248||Withdrawn||Drug: Nivolumab||Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma||HealthPartners Institute||September 2020||Phase 1|Phase 2|
|NCT03441412||Completed||Drug: Ticagrelor 90mg|Drug: Epinephrine|Drug: Metoprolol||Healthy Volunteers||Vastra Gotaland Region|Gothia Forum - Center for Clinical Trial|Uppsala University||February 28 2018||Phase 1|
|NCT03306550||Unknown status||Drug: salvianolate injection|Drug: Aspirin Tablet||Angina Stable||Xiyuan Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences||October 10 2017||Not Applicable|
Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.
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