For research use only.
Molecular Weight(MW): 171.15
Metronidazole, a synthetic antibacterial and antiprotozoal agent of the nitroimidazole class, is used against protozoa.
Purity & Quality Control
Choose Selective Antineoplastic and Immunosuppressive Antibiotics Inhibitors
|Description||Metronidazole, a synthetic antibacterial and antiprotozoal agent of the nitroimidazole class, is used against protozoa.|
Metronidazole is relatively inactive until it is metabolized within host or microbial cells. Metronidazole is activated when it receives an electron from ferredoxin or fla vodoxin that is reduced by POR in anaerobic or microaerophilic bacteria or luminal parasites. Metronidazole damages cells by forming protein and DNA adducts.  Metronidazole has activity against protozoans like Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis, for which the drug is first approved as an effective treatment. The activity of metronidazole against anaerobic bowel flora has been used for prophylaxis and treatment of patients with Crohn's disease who might develop an infectious complication. Metronidazole has played an important role in anaerobic-related infections. Metronidazole has notable effectiveness in treating anaerobic brain abscesses.  Metronidazole resistance tends to result from de novo mutation in the resident rdxA gene, rather than from lateral transfer of mutant rdxA (or other) genes from unrelated but Mtzr strains. Metronidazole partially inhibits growth stimulate forward mutation to rifampin resistance in rdxA(+) (Metronidazole(s)) and also in rdxA (Metronidazole(r)) H. pylori strains, and that expression of rdxA in Escherichia coli results in equivalent Mtz-induced mutation.  Metronidazole leads to apoptosis-like features in growing cultures of axenic B. hominis, including key morphological and biochemical features of programmed cell death (PCD), viz. nuclear condensation and nicked DNA in nucleus, reduced cytoplasmic volume, externalization of phosphatidylserine and maintenance of plasma membrane integrity with increasing permeability. 
|In vitro||DMSO||34 mg/mL (198.65 mM)|
* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.
In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)
|Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)|
|Dosage||mg/kg||Average weight of animals||g||Dosing volume per animal||ul||Number of animals|
|Step 2: Enter the in vivo formulation (Different batches have different solubility ratios, please contact Selleck to provide you with the correct ratio)|
|% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O|
Working concentration： mg/ml；
Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: ： mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO (Master liquid concentration mg/mL，)
Method for preparing in vivo formulation：Take DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300， mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80，mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O，mix and clarify.
1.Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2.Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such as vortex, ultrasound or hot water bath can be used to aid dissolving.
Calculate the mass, volume or concentration required for a solution. The Selleck molarity calculator is based on the following equation:
Mass (mg) = Concentration (mM) × Volume (mL) × Molecular Weight (g/mol)
*When preparing stock solutions, please always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the via label and MSDS / COA (available on product pages).
Calculate the dilution required to prepare a stock solution. The Selleck dilution calculator is based on the following equation:
Concentration (start) x Volume (start) = Concentration (final) x Volume (final)
This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2 ( Input Output )
* When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and MSDS / COA (available online).
Molecular Weight Calculator
Enter the chemical formula of a compound to calculate its molar mass and elemental composition:
Tip: Chemical formula is case sensitive. C10H16N2O2 c10h16n2o2
Instructions to calculate molar mass (molecular weight) of a chemical compound:
To calculate molar mass of a chemical compound, please enter its chemical formula and click 'Calculate'.
Definitions of molecular mass, molecular weight, molar mass and molar weight:
Molecular mass (molecular weight) is the mass of one molecule of a substance and is expressed in the unified atomic mass units (u). (1 u is equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12)
Molar mass (molar weight) is the mass of one mole of a substance and is expressed in g/mol.
Clinical Trial Information
|NCT Number||Recruitment||interventions||Conditions||Sponsor/Collaborators||Start Date||Phases|
|NCT04273997||Not yet recruiting||Drug: Metronidazole 10% ointment|Drug: Placebo ointment||Pilonidal Sinus||S.L.A. Pharma AG||May 2020||Phase 2|
|NCT04299867||Not yet recruiting||Procedure: Bowel Surgery with Metronidazole||Bowel Dysfunction||Duke University||May 15 2020||--|
|NCT04031183||Not yet recruiting||--||Emergencies||Rennes University Hospital||March 2020||--|
|NCT03969758||Not yet recruiting||Drug: Ciprofloxacin|Drug: Cefixime||Liver Abscess||Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research||July 2019||Phase 3|
Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.
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