Molecular Weight(MW): 136.11
Allopurinol is a purine analog inhibitor of the enzyme xanthine oxidase, used to treat gout or kidney stones, and to decrease levels of uric acid.
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|Description||Allopurinol is a purine analog inhibitor of the enzyme xanthine oxidase, used to treat gout or kidney stones, and to decrease levels of uric acid.|
Allopurinol reverses the increased xanthine oxidase activity in ischemia-reperfusion injury of neonatal rat hearts. Allopurinol (10 mM) treatment suppresses xanthine oxidase activity induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation injury and the production of reactive oxygen species. Allopurinol also decreases the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ increased by enhanced xanthine oxidase activity. 
|In vivo||Allopurinol shows abnormal pyrimidine metabolism together with renal toxicity which could be ameliorated by uridine, indicating that Allopurinol essentially causes pyrimidine metabolism abnormality leading to renal impairment in normal mice. Allopurinol increases urinary OD excretion to an extent similar to that in normal mice administered the same dose of Allopurinol in DNFB-sensitized mice.  Allopurinol promotes a clinical improvement which is accompanied by a reduction in the parasitic load in the blood, skin and lymph nodes but, even after long period of allopurinol administration alone, Leishmania may persist in dog tissues in Leishmania-infected dogs.  Allopurinol prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury in rats, most likely by preventing oxidant-dependent activation of NF-kappaB.  Allopurinol protects dose-dependently against acetaminophen-induced cell injury, the loss of ATP and the increase of the GSSG content in the total liver and in the mitochondrial compartment without inhibiting reactive metabolite formation in mice. Allopurinol almost completely inhibits hepatic xanthine oxidase and dehydrogenase activity, but only high doses prevents the increase of the mitochondrial GSSG content. |
-  Kang SM, et al. Eur J Pharmacol,?006, 535(1-3), 212-219.
-  Horiuchi H, et al. Life Sci,?000, 66(21), 2051-2070.
-  Manna L, et al. Vet J,?008, 177(2), 279-282.
|In vitro||DMSO||27 mg/mL (198.36 mM)|
|Water||4 mg/mL (29.38 mM)|
|Ethanol||3 mg/mL (22.04 mM)|
* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.
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Clinical Trial Information
|NCT Number||Recruitment||interventions||Conditions||Sponsor/Collaborators||Start Date||Phases|
|NCT03601260||Not yet recruiting||Drug: Allopurinol||Gout||Hillel Yaffe Medical Center||August 2018||Not Applicable|
|NCT02956278||Active not recruiting||Drug: Allopurinol|Other: Placebo||Chronic Gout|Hyperuricemia||University of California San Francisco|National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)|Open Medicine Institute||November 2016||Phase 4|
|NCT03046914||Unknown status||Genetic: HLA-B*5801 test||Stevens-Johnson Syndrome|Kidney Failure Chronic||Seoul National University Hospital|Ministry of Food and Drug Safety Korea||February 24 2016||Not Applicable|
Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.
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