For research use only.
Molecular Weight(MW): 241.72
Phenformin HCl is a hydrochloride salt of phenformin that is an anti-diabetic drug from the biguanide class. It activates AMPK, increasing activity and phosphorylation.
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a set of RNAi-resistant rescue forms of Cdc37 plasmids were transfected into stable Cdc37-RNAi HCT116 cells. 24 h after transfection cells were treated with phenformin and then subjected to FLAG immunoprecipitation.
J Biol Chem, 2017, 292(7):2830-2841. Phenformin HCl purchased from Selleck.
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|Description||Phenformin HCl is a hydrochloride salt of phenformin that is an anti-diabetic drug from the biguanide class. It activates AMPK, increasing activity and phosphorylation.|
Phenformin stimulates the phosphorylation and activation of AMPKalpha1 and AMPKalpha2 without altering LKB1 activity.  Phenformin increases AMPK activity and phosphorylation in the isolated heart, the increase in AMPK activity is always preceded by and correlated with increased cytosolic [AMP].  Phenformin is a 50-fold more potent inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I than metformin. Phenformin robustly induces apoptosis in LKB1 deficient NSCLC cell lines. Phenformin at 2 mM similarly induces AMPK signaling as shown by increased P-AMPK and P-Raptor levels. Phenformin induces higher levels of cellular stress, triggering induction of P-Ser51 eIF2α and its downstream target CHOP, and markers of apoptosis at later times. Phenformin induces a significant increase in survival and therapeutic response in KLluc mice following long-term treatment.  Phenformin and AICAR increases AMPK activity in H441 cells in a dose-dependent fashion, stimulating the kinase maximally at 5-10 mm and 2 mm, respectively. Phenformin significantly decreases basal ion transport (measured as short circuit current) across H441 monolayers by approximately 50% compared with that of controls. Phenformin and AICAR significantly reduce amiloride-sensitive transepithelial Na+ transport compared with controls. Phenformin and AICAR suppress amiloride-sensitive Na+ transport across H441 cells via a pathway that includes activation of AMPK and inhibition of both apical Na+ entry through ENaC and basolateral Na+ extrusion via the Na+,K+-ATPase.  Phenformin-treated rats reveals a tendency towards a decrease in blood insulin level (radioimmunoassay). 
|In vivo||Phenformin also increases levels of P-eIF2α and its target BiP/Grp78 in normal lung as well as in lung tumors of mice. |
-  Sakamoto K, et al. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 2004, 287(2), E310-317.
-  Zhang L, et al. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 2007, 293(1), H457-466.
-  Moreira AL, et al. J Exp Med, 1993, 177(6), 1675-1680.
|In vitro||DMSO||48 mg/mL (198.57 mM)|
|Water||48 mg/mL (198.57 mM)|
|Ethanol||12 mg/mL (49.64 mM)|
* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.
In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)
|Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)|
|Dosage||mg/kg||Average weight of animals||g||Dosing volume per animal||ul||Number of animals|
|Step 2: Enter the in vivo formulation (Different batches have different solubility ratios, please contact Selleck to provide you with the correct ratio)|
|% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O|
Working concentration： mg/ml；
Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: ： mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO (Master liquid concentration mg/mL，)
Method for preparing in vivo formulation：Take DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300， mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80，mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O，mix and clarify.
1.Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2.Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such as vortex, ultrasound or hot water bath can be used to aid dissolving.
Calculate the mass, volume or concentration required for a solution. The Selleck molarity calculator is based on the following equation:
Mass (mg) = Concentration (mM) × Volume (mL) × Molecular Weight (g/mol)
*When preparing stock solutions, please always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the via label and MSDS / COA (available on product pages).
Calculate the dilution required to prepare a stock solution. The Selleck dilution calculator is based on the following equation:
Concentration (start) x Volume (start) = Concentration (final) x Volume (final)
This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2 ( Input Output )
* When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and MSDS / COA (available online).
Molecular Weight Calculator
Enter the chemical formula of a compound to calculate its molar mass and elemental composition:
Tip: Chemical formula is case sensitive. C10H16N2O2 c10h16n2o2
Instructions to calculate molar mass (molecular weight) of a chemical compound:
To calculate molar mass of a chemical compound, please enter its chemical formula and click 'Calculate'.
Definitions of molecular mass, molecular weight, molar mass and molar weight:
Molecular mass (molecular weight) is the mass of one molecule of a substance and is expressed in the unified atomic mass units (u). (1 u is equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12)
Molar mass (molar weight) is the mass of one mole of a substance and is expressed in g/mol.
Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.
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