Noradrenaline bitartrate monohydrate

Catalog No.S2615 Synonyms: Levophed

For research use only.

Noradrenaline bitartrate monohydrate (Levophed) is a direct alpha-adrenergic receptors stimulator.

Noradrenaline bitartrate monohydrate Chemical Structure

CAS No. 108341-18-0

Purity & Quality Control

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Biological Activity

Description Noradrenaline bitartrate monohydrate (Levophed) is a direct alpha-adrenergic receptors stimulator.
alpha-adrenergic receptor [1]
In vitro

Noradrenaline modulates the gain of evoked activity, especially in sensory areas. Noradrenaline promotes long-term synaptic plasticity, in addition to these data emphasizing its short-term influence. Noradrenaline would signal ‘gross changes in the environment that produce sensory information strongly violating top-down expectations’ and would, through an enhancement of ‘bottom-up’ information processing at the expense of irrelevant ‘top-down’ expectations, favor behavioral adjustment. [1] Noradrenaline modulates drive and energy and exerts a fine regulation of specific processes including learning, memory, sleep, arousal and adaptation. Noradrenaline system is intimately involved in a range of psychological processes which, when disrupted, lead to the expression of classifiable psychiatric disorders. Noradrenaline appears to be involved in a range of psychological processes, including arousal (vigilance), cognition, learning and sleep regulation, and also in regulating response to stressors which might initiate or exacerbate depressive symptomatology. Noradrenaline deficiency in this pathway may reduce concentration, affect working memory and cause psychomotor retardation, resulting in apathy and depression,while an increase in noradrenaline in this pathway is predicted to alleviate poor concentration, apathy and depression. [2] Noradrenaline effects are complex and depending on experimental conditions (ponto-medullary and medullary preparations) and species (rats or mice), exogenous Noradrenaline mainly facilitates or mainly inhibits the neonatal RRG, with a mixture of α1 facilitatory and α2 inhibitory effects. [3]

Protocol (from reference)

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro

DMSO 64 mg/mL
(189.75 mM)
Water 64 mg/mL
(189.75 mM)
Ethanol Insoluble

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 337.28


CAS No. 108341-18-0
Storage 3 years -20°C powder
2 years -80°C in solvent
Smiles C1=CC(=C(C=C1C(CN)O)O)O.C(C(C(=O)O)O)(C(=O)O)O.O

In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)

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Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO ( Master liquid concentration mg/mL, Please contact us first if the concentration exceeds the DMSO solubility of the batch of drug. )

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300, mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80, mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O, mix and clarify.

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next add μL Corn oil, mix and clarify.

Note: 1. Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2. Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such
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Molarity Calculator

Mass Concentration Volume Molecular Weight

Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment Interventions Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT05179135 Not yet recruiting Other: Postprandial exercise of different modalities Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus University Ghent|University Hospital Ghent January 1 2022 Not Applicable
NCT04963920 Not yet recruiting Device: Cytosorb® 300 ml Septic Shock CytoSorbents Europe GmbH September 2021 Not Applicable
NCT04807413 Recruiting Drug: Nitric Oxide|Other: standard of care treatment Hypoxia Rabin Medical Center August 14 2021 Phase 3

(data from, updated on 2022-01-17)

Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

Handling Instructions

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