Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)

Catalog No.S8639

For research use only.

Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) is an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase and also a potent, irreversible, and time-, temperature-dependent iNOS/eNOS inhibitor. Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) also functions as a TRPA1 activator and selectively inhibits intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) Chemical Structure

CAS No. 4673-26-1

Selleck's Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) has been cited by 30 publications

Purity & Quality Control

Choose Selective NADPH-oxidase Inhibitors

Biological Activity

Description Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) is an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase and also a potent, irreversible, and time-, temperature-dependent iNOS/eNOS inhibitor. Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) also functions as a TRPA1 activator and selectively inhibits intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS).
NADPH oxidase [1]
In vitro

DPI inhibits the activity of NADPH oxidase, nitric oxide synthase, xanthine oxidase and NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase[4]. Femtomolar concentrations of DPI exert potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects by inhibiting microglial activation through the inhibition of ERK-regulated PHOX activity[1]. DPI has frequently been used to inhibit ROS production mediated by various flavoenzymes, including NAD(P)H oxidase, quinone oxidoreductase, cytochrome P450 reductase and nitric oxide synthase[2]. NADPH, NADP+, and 2'5'-ADP blocks the inhibitory action of DPI[3]. DPI treatment in ARPE-19 cells evoked a dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition, and also induced DNA fragmentation and protein content of the proapoptotic factor Bax. In addition, DPI significantly induced the expression and phosphorylation of p53, which induces proapoptotic genes in response to DNA damage or irreparable cell cycle arrest. ROS have been implicated as a key factor in the activation of p53 by many chemotherapeutic drugs[4].

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
MC3T3-E1 MoL3SpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? M4HadFEx6oDLzszN M{D4O|MxKG2rbh?= NWf0UWpC[myxY3ugVm9UKGenbnXyZZRqd25iYX7kJG5QYCCneIDy[ZN{cW:w NVLZRnZbRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxM{GwOFkyPDBpPkOxNFQ6OTRyPD;hQi=>
RAW264.7 M1jy[mZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NVn4VmtSOTEkgJpOwG0> MX60JIRigXN? NVn3d|NwTFCLIHHkcYlvcXO2cnH0bY9vKGmwaHnibZRm\CC2aHWg[YZn\WO2IH;mJHJCVkuOIH;uJI9{fGWxY3zhd5Qh\GmoZnXy[Y51cWG2aX;uJIFv\CC{ZXT1Z4VlKHSqZTDueY1j\XJib3[gWHJCWC2yb4PpeIl3\SCvdXz0bY52[2ynYYKgZ4VtdHN? NX3HWmJzRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxM{C5OFI1ODhpPkOwPVQzPDB6PD;hQi=>
VSMC M1\qV2Z2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NF62ZmMyOCEQvF2= NVTBcoxjPiCq M{nwd4RqdWmwaYPo[YQhWESJRj3CRk1mfm:tZXSgWnNOSyCmZXTp[oZmemWwdHnheIlwdixicILvcIln\XKjdHnvckBidmRibXnndoF1cW:w M4DoUFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ7MUe1O|U{Lz5{OUG3OVc2OzxxYU6=
HK-2 M3nTdmZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NGPTOoxqdmirYnn0[YQhWk:VIHflcoVz[XSrb36gbY4hfGinIGTaRU1qdmS3Y3XkJI5m[3KxcITvd4l{ M1fNVFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ6OEm0OVcxLz5{OEi5OFU4ODxxYU6=
mouse neural precursor cells NFXE[GNHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MV7Jcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKG6ndYLvd5Bp\XKnIIDyc4xq\mW{YYTpc44hd2ZibX;1d4UhdmW3cnHsJJBz\WO3coPvdkBk\WyuczDifUBOXFRiYYPzZZk> NV7hPJpERGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUe0NVc3OzFpPkG3OFE4PjNzPD;hQi=>
RAW264.7 NEK4dohHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NXK5UJpFOSCqch?= NVH0Tlc6UW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDMVHMue3SrbYXsZZRm\CCUT2OgdJJw\HWldHnvckBqdiCvb4Xz[UBTSVd{NkSuO{Bk\WyuczDwdoVqdmO3YnH0[YQh\m:{IEGgbJIh\m:ubH;3[YQh[nliTGDTJJN1cW23bHH0bY9vKGGodHXyJFI1KGi{czDifUBEVUh{RFPGSGEheHKxYnWtZoF{\WRiZnz1c5Jme2OnbnPlJIF{e2G7 MV28ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zQDN6NEW0OEc,Ojh|OES1OFQ9N2F-
Methods Test Index PMID
Western blot Nox1 / MMP2 / MMP9 26760964

Protocol (from reference)

Cell Research:


  • Cell lines: ARPE-19 cells
  • Concentrations: 0.1, 1, and 10 μM
  • Incubation Time: 6, 12, 24, and 48 h
  • Method:

    ARPE-19 cells are plated at 1×106 cells per 60-mm dishes and incubated for 24 h. Cells are cultured in presence or absence of different concentrations of DPI in fresh DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 10% FBS. After incubation, the cells are trypsinized, washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and the viable cells were scored by the trypan blue dye exclusion method using a hemocytometer.

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro

In vivo

Add solvents to the product individually and in order
(Data is from Selleck tests instead of citations):
3% DMSO+40% PEG 300+2% Tween 80+ddH2O
For best results, use promptly after mixing.


Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 314.55


CAS No. 4673-26-1
Storage 3 years -20°C powder
2 years -80°C in solvent
Smiles C1=CC=C2C(=C1)C3=CC=CC=C3[I+]2.[Cl-]

In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)

Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)

mg/kg g μL

Step 2: Enter the in vivo formulation (This is only the calculator, not formulation. Please contact us first if there is no in vivo formulation at the solubility Section.)

% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O

Calculation results:

Working concentration: mg/ml;

Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO ( Master liquid concentration mg/mL, Please contact us first if the concentration exceeds the DMSO solubility of the batch of drug. )

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300, mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80, mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O, mix and clarify.

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next add μL Corn oil, mix and clarify.

Note: 1. Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2. Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such
as vortex, ultrasound or hot water bath can be used to aid dissolving.

Molarity Calculator

Mass Concentration Volume Molecular Weight

Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment Interventions Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT05470712 Active not recruiting -- Pre-Eclampsia Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nīmes July 20 2022 --
NCT03892200 Recruiting Behavioral: Daily Mouth Care Aging|Long-Term Care University of North Carolina Chapel Hill|National Institute on Aging (NIA) October 1 2019 Not Applicable
NCT03988530 Unknown status Drug: Scopolamine|Other: Placebo Nasal Gel Motion Sickness Repurposed Therapeutics Inc. June 7 2019 Phase 3
NCT04184115 Completed Drug: DPI-386 Nasal Gel|Drug: Placebos Motion Sickness Repurposed Therapeutics Inc. June 9 2019 Phase 3
NCT04272255 Unknown status Drug: scopolamine HBr|Drug: Transdermal Scopolamine Motion Sickness Repurposed Therapeutics Inc. April 22 2019 Phase 3

(data from https://clinicaltrials.gov, updated on 2022-08-01)

Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

Handling Instructions

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