Choline Chloride

Catalog No.S4171

For research use only.

Choline chloride is a quaternary ammonium salt used as an additive for animal feed. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.

Choline Chloride Chemical Structure

CAS No. 67-48-1

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Biological Activity

Description Choline chloride is a quaternary ammonium salt used as an additive for animal feed. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
In vitro

Choline is a major part of the polar head group of phosphatidylcholine and a major part of another membrane phospholipid, sphingomyelin, which are very important for maintenance of cell structure and function. Choline deficiency in cell culture causes apoptosis or programmed cell death. Betaine or trimethylglycine is derived from choline via an oxidation reaction. Acetylcholine is one of the major neurotransmitters and requires choline for its synthesis. Adequate acetylcholine levels in the brain are believed to be protective against certain types of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. Choline is also needed for gallbladder regulation, liver function and lecithin (a key lipid) formation. Choline also aids in fat and cholesterol metabolism and prevents excessive fat build up in the liver. Choline has been used to mitigate the effects of Parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia. Choline deficiencies may result in excessive build-up of fat in the liver, high blood pressure, gastric ulcers, kidney and liver dysfunction and stunted growth.

In vivo Choline chloride is of very low acute oral toxicity. The oral LD50 in rats is determined to be between 3150 and 5000 mg/kg bw. Clinical symptoms after application are restlessness, increased frequency of respiration, hypoactivity, convulsions, ruffled coat, staggered gait and dyspnoea. Some animals have diarrhoea and at necropsy in the high dose groups in one study 3 out of 10 rats have inflamed lungs.

Protocol (from reference)

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro

DMSO 28 mg/mL
(200.54 mM)
Water 28 mg/mL
(200.54 mM)
Ethanol 28 mg/mL
(200.54 mM)

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 139.62


CAS No. 67-48-1
Storage 3 years -20°C powder
2 years -80°C in solvent
Smiles C[N+](C)(C)CCO.[Cl-]

In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)

Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)

mg/kg g μL

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% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O

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Working concentration: mg/ml;

Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO ( Master liquid concentration mg/mL, Please contact us first if the concentration exceeds the DMSO solubility of the batch of drug. )

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300, mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80, mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O, mix and clarify.

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next add μL Corn oil, mix and clarify.

Note: 1. Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2. Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such
as vortex, ultrasound or hot water bath can be used to aid dissolving.

Molarity Calculator

Mass Concentration Volume Molecular Weight

Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment Interventions Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT04999215 Not yet recruiting Drug: F-choline intravenous injection Lesion With Known or Suspected F-choline Uptake Centre hospitalier de l''Université de Montréal (CHUM) March 1 2022 Phase 3
NCT04150458 Not yet recruiting Drug: 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT. Fluorocholine PET/CT Sir Mortimer B. Davis - Jewish General Hospital December 2021 Phase 3
NCT05087134 Not yet recruiting Drug: 11C-Choline Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Peking Union Medical College Hospital November 2021 Early Phase 1
NCT04735172 Not yet recruiting Other: specific MRI Acquisition (NMR spectroscopy) at 7T Parkinson''s Disease University Hospital Clermont-Ferrand September 2021 Not Applicable
NCT04158024 Not yet recruiting Other: Erector Spinae Plane Block Congenital Heart Disease in Children|Neurologic Complication Stanford University September 2021 Not Applicable
NCT05135897 Recruiting Device: Electroconvulsive therapy|Device: rTMS Major Depressive Disorder 1|Major Depressive Disorder|Healthy Haukeland University Hospital|University of Bergen September 27 2021 --

(data from, updated on 2022-01-17)

Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

Handling Instructions

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