Catalog No.S1537 Synonyms: NSC 640488, ASA-404
Molecular Weight(MW): 282.29
DMXAA (Vadimezan) is a vascular disrupting agents (VDA) and competitive inhibitor of DT-diaphorase with Ki of 20 μM and IC50 of 62.5 μM in cell-free assays, respectively. Phase 3.
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(B and C) sh-scrambled or sh-ck2a–transducted L929 cells (B) and Raw cells (C) were stimulated by DMXAA (100 μg/ml) for various times. Cytosolic and nuclear extracts were prepared as described in Materials and Methods. Five percent of the cytosolic proteins and 20% of the nuclear proteins were resolved by 10% SDS-PAGE. Subsequently, immunoblotting was conducted by indicated Abs. The amounts of Tubulin and Lamin B1 in cytosol versus nuclei detected by respective Abs were used as internal control for fractionation.
J Immunol, 2015, 194:4477-4488. DMXAA (Vadimezan) purchased from Selleck.
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|Description||DMXAA (Vadimezan) is a vascular disrupting agents (VDA) and competitive inhibitor of DT-diaphorase with Ki of 20 μM and IC50 of 62.5 μM in cell-free assays, respectively. Phase 3.|
In DLD-1 human colon carcinoma cells, DMXAA inhibits DT-diaphorase activity without significant effects on the activity of cytochrome b5 reductase and cytochrome P450 reductase. Combination of menadione and DMXAA leads to an increase in the antiproliferative activity of DLD-1 cells.  DMXAA, as an antiviral agent, inhibits VSV-induced cytotoxicity and influenza virus replication in RAW 264.7 macrophages.  A recent study shows that DMXAA has non-immune-mediated inhibitory effects against several kinase members of VEGFR (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor), such as VEGFR2 signalling in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. 
|In vivo||DMXAA treatment significantly protects C57BL/6J mice infected i.n. with 200 p.f.u. mouse-adapted H1N1 influenza PR8 virus with 60% survival, while the control group only exhibited 20% survival.  DMXAA significantly delays tumor growth induced by chemical carcinogen, increases the time to tumor doubling and increases time from treatment to euthanasia. After the treatment of DMXAA, median tumor doubling time, median tumour tripling time and median time from treatment to euthanasia in tumor-bearing animals are increased by approximately 4.4-, 1.8- and 2.7-fold, respectively. |
DT-diaphorase activity and kinetic analysis of enzyme inhibition :Purified DT-diaphorase enzyme activity is assayed by measuring the reduction of cytochrome c at 550 nm on a Beckman DU 650 spectrophotometer. Each assay contains cytochrome c (70 μM), NADH (variable concentrations), purified DT-diaphorase (0.032 μg), and menadione (variable concentrations) in a final volume of 1 mL Tris–HCl buffer (50 mM, pH 7.4) containing 0.14% BSA. The reaction is started by the addition of NADH. Rates of reduction are calculated over the initial part of the reaction curve (30 seconds), and results are expressed in terms of μmol cytochrome c reduced/min/mg protein using a molar extinction coefficient of 21.1 mM−1 cm−1 for reduced cytochrome c. Enzyme assays are carried out at room temperature and all reactions are performed in triplicate. Inhibition of purified DT-diaphorase activity is performed by the inclusion of DMXAA (at various concentrations) in the reaction, and inhibition characteristics are determined by varying the concentration of NADH (constant menadione) or menadione (constant NADH) at several concentrations of inhibitor. Ki values are obtained by plotting 1/V against. The activity of DT-diaphorase in DLD-1 cells is determined by measuring the dicumarol-sensitive reduction of DCPIP at 600 nm. Briefly, DLD-1 cells in mid-exponential growth are harvested by scraping into ice-cold buffer (Tris–HCl, 25 mM, pH 7.4 and 250 mM sucrose) and sonicated on ice. Enzyme assay conditions are 2 mM NADH, 40 μM DCPIP, 20 μL of dicumarol (when required) in a final volume of 1 mL Tris–HCl (25 mM, pH 7.4) containing BSA (0.7 mg/mL). Results are expressed as the dicumarol-sensitive reduction of DCPIP using a molar extinction coefficient of 21 mM−1 cm−1. Protein levels are determined using the Bradford assay
|In vitro||DMSO||7 mg/mL (24.79 mM)|
|In vivo||Add solvents to the product individually and in order(Data is from Selleck tests instead of citations):
5% NaHCO3 (aq) warmed
For best results, use promptly after mixing.
* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.
|Synonyms||NSC 640488, ASA-404|
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Clinical Trial Information
|NCT Number||Recruitment||Conditions||Sponsor/Collaborators||Start Date||Phases|
|NCT01278758||Terminated||Metastatic Cancer||Novartis Pharmaceuticals|Novartis||March 2010||Phase 1|
|NCT01290380||Terminated||Solid Tumor Malignancies||Novartis Pharmaceuticals|Novartis||February 2010||Phase 1|
|NCT01057342||Completed||Lung Cancer||Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research||January 2010||Phase 2|
|NCT01299415||Terminated||Solid Tumors||Novartis Pharmaceuticals|Novartis||August 2009||Phase 1|
|NCT01285453||Completed||Advanced or Recurrent Solid Tumors||Novartis Pharmaceuticals|Novartis||March 2009||Phase 1|
|NCT00111618||Completed||Prostate Cancer||Antisoma Research||May 2005||Phase 2|
Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.
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