TRAM-34

Catalog No.S1160 Synonyms: Triarylmethane-34

TRAM-34 Chemical Structure

Molecular Weight(MW): 344.84

TRAM-34 is a selective and potent inhibitor of the intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (IKCa1, KCa3.1) with Kd of 20 nM, 200- to 1500-fold selective over other ion channels, and does not block cytochrome P450.

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Description TRAM-34 is a selective and potent inhibitor of the intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (IKCa1, KCa3.1) with Kd of 20 nM, 200- to 1500-fold selective over other ion channels, and does not block cytochrome P450.
Features Has a therapeutic profile similar to clotrimazole, but TRAM-34 has a superior safety profile.
Targets
IKCa1 (KCa3.1) [1]
20 nM(Kd)
In vitro

Unlike clotrimazole, TRAM-34 selectively inhibits IKCa1 without blocking cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP3A4). TRAM-34 potently inhibits cloned IKCa1 channel in IKCa1-transfected COS-7 cells as well as native IKCa currents in human T lymphocytes and T84 cells with Kd of 20 nM, 25 nM, and 22 nM, respectively, more potently than clotrimazole with Kd of 70 nM, 100 nM, and 90 nM, respectively. TRAM-34 exhibits 200- to 1,500-fold selectivity over other ion channels such as KV, BKCa, SKCa, Na+, CRAC and Cl- channels. TRAM-34 significantly inhibits anti-CD3 Ab or PKC-activator PMA plus calcium-ionophore ionomycin induced activation of human T lymphocytes with IC50 of 295-910 nM and 85-830 nM, respectively. TRAM-34 (5 μM) does not inhibit cell viability of human T lymphocytes or several cell lines. [1] TRAM-34 significantly inhibits EGF-induced IKCa1 up-regulation, and EGF-stimulated proliferation of A7r5 cells with IC50 of 8 nM. [2] TRAM-34 treatment inhibits proliferation of human endometrial cancer (EC) cells, and blocks EC cell cycle at G0/G1 phase. [3] Inhibition of the IKCa1 channel by TRAM-34 (1-30 μM) leads to dose-dependent suppression of the proliferation but not apoptosis of LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer (PCa) cells, involving an increase of p21Cip1 and cell arrest in the G1 cycle. [4]

In vivo TRAM-34 treatment at ~500-1,000 times the channel-blocking dose (0.5 mg/kg/day) for 7 days is nontoxic to mice. [1] Administration of TRAM-34 at 120 mg/kg/day significantly reduces intimal hyperplasia by ~40% in a rat model of balloon catheter injury (BCI). [2] Consistent with its in vitro role in inhibiting the proliferation of EC cells, TRAM-34 treatment at 30 μM slows the development of HEC-1-A tumor in vivo. [3]

Protocol

Kinase Assay:[1]
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Electrophysiology:

The human IKCa1 is cloned and expressed in COS-7 cells. Cells are studied in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. The holding potential is 280 mV. The internal pipette solution contains: 145 mM K+ aspartate, 2 mM MgCl2, 10 mM Hepes, 10 mM K2EGTA, and 8.5 mM CaCl2 (1 μM free Ca2+), pH 7.2, 290-310 mOsm. To reduce currents from the native chloride channels in COS-7 cells, Na+ aspartate Ringer is used as an external solution: 160 mM Na+ aspartatey/4.5 mM KCl/2 mM CaCl2/1 mM MgCl2/5 mM Hepes, pH 7.4/290-310 mOsm. IKCa currents in COS-7 cells are elicited by 200-ms voltage ramps from -120 mV to 40 mV applied every 10 seconds and the reduction of slope conductance at -80 mV by TRAM-34 taken as a measure of channel block.
Cell Research:[1]
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  • Cell lines: Human T lymphocytes, Jurkat E6-1, MEL, C2F3, CHO, COS-7, L929, NGP, NLF, and RBL-2H3
  • Concentrations: Dissolved in DMSO, final concentration ~10 μM
  • Incubation Time: 48 hours
  • Method: Cells are exposed to TRAM-34 for 48 hours. After 48 hours, cells are harvested by suction (suspension cells) or by trypsinization (adherent cell lines), centrifuged, resuspended in 0.5 mL PBS containing 1 μg/mL propidium iodide (PI), and red fluorescence measured on a FACScan flow cytometer. The percentage of dead cells is determined by their PI uptake, 104 cells of every sample being analyzed.
    (Only for Reference)
Animal Research:[2]
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  • Animal Models: Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to BCI of the left CA by use of a 2F Fogarty embolectomy catheter
  • Formulation: Formulated in peanut oil
  • Dosages: 120 mg/kg/day
  • Administration: Subcutaneous injection
    (Only for Reference)

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro DMSO 0.4 mg/mL (1.15 mM)
Water Insoluble
Ethanol Insoluble
In vivo Add solvents to the product individually and in order(Data is from Selleck tests instead of citations):
2% DMSO+corn oil
For best results, use promptly after mixing.
1mg/mL

* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 344.84
Formula

C22H17ClN2

CAS No. 289905-88-0
Storage powder
in solvent
Synonyms Triarylmethane-34

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Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

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Potassium Channel Signaling Pathway Map

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Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID