For research use only.
Molecular Weight(MW): 147.19
Mildronate is an inhibitor of biosynthesis of L-carnitine by gamma-butyrobetaine (GBB) hydroxylase and as a competitive inhibitor of renal carnitine reabsorption.
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|Description||Mildronate is an inhibitor of biosynthesis of L-carnitine by gamma-butyrobetaine (GBB) hydroxylase and as a competitive inhibitor of renal carnitine reabsorption.|
Mildronate (40 μM) inhibits the reaction of γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase with γ-butyrobetaine with Km and Vmax of 36.8 μM and 0.08 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. 
|In vivo||Mildronate administered orally to rats for 10 days (150 mg/kg) elicits a reduction in myocardial free camitine and long-chain acyl carnitine content by 63.7 and 74.3%, respectively. Mildronate treatment (100 mg/kg, orally) subsequent administration of isoproterenol results in a reduction in free camitine concentration by 48.7% in comparison with the rats receiving isoproterenol. A prior administration of Mildronate effectively protects the myocardium from isoproterenol-induced variations in the content of ATP and myocardial energy charge, as well as preventing a rise in creatine phosphokinase and lactic dehydrogenase activity.  Mildronate (200 mg/kg) long-term treatment significantly increases the rate of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by 35% and the expression of glucose transporter 4 (1.7-fold increase), hexokinase II (2.1-fold increase), insulin receptor proteins (2.5-fold increase) and carnitine palmitoyltransferases IA (2.2-fold increase) in mouse hearts. Mildronate long-term treatment statistically significantly decreases fed state blood glucose from 6 to 5 mM.  Mildronate reduces the azidothymidine-induced alterations in mouse brain tissue. Mildronate (50 mg/kg) normalizes the increase in caspase-3, cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (CAS) and iNOS expression. Mildronate also normalizes the changes in cytochromec oxidase (COX) expression, reduces the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cellular infiltration.  Mildronate displays protective effects in experimental model of type 2 diabetes in Goto-Kakizaki rats. Mildronate (200 mg/kg) treatment decreases both the fed- and fasted-state blood glucose. Mildronate strongly inhibits fructosamine accumulation and loss of pain sensitivity (by 75%) and also ameliorates the enhanced contractile responsiveness of Goto-Kakizaki rat aortic rings to phenylephrine. In addition, in Mildronate-treated hearts, the necrosis zone following coronary occlusion is significantly decreased by 30%. |
|In vitro||Water||29 mg/mL (197.02 mM)|
|Ethanol||29 mg/mL (197.02 mM)|
* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.
In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)
|Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)|
|Dosage||mg/kg||Average weight of animals||g||Dosing volume per animal||ul||Number of animals|
|Step 2: Enter the in vivo formulation ()|
|% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O|
Working concentration： mg/ml；
Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: ： mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO (Master liquid concentration mg/mL，)
Method for preparing in vivo formulation：Take DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300， mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80，mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O，mix and clarify.
1.Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2.Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such as vortex, ultrasound or hot water bath can be used to aid dissolving.
Calculate the mass, volume or concentration required for a solution. The Selleck molarity calculator is based on the following equation:
Mass (mg) = Concentration (mM) × Volume (mL) × Molecular Weight (g/mol)
*When preparing stock solutions, please always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the via label and MSDS / COA (available on product pages).
Calculate the dilution required to prepare a stock solution. The Selleck dilution calculator is based on the following equation:
Concentration (start) x Volume (start) = Concentration (final) x Volume (final)
This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2 ( Input Output )
* When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and MSDS / COA (available online).
Molecular Weight Calculator
Enter the chemical formula of a compound to calculate its molar mass and elemental composition:
Tip: Chemical formula is case sensitive. C10H16N2O2 c10h16n2o2
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Definitions of molecular mass, molecular weight, molar mass and molar weight:
Molecular mass (molecular weight) is the mass of one molecule of a substance and is expressed in the unified atomic mass units (u). (1 u is equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12)
Molar mass (molar weight) is the mass of one mole of a substance and is expressed in g/mol.
Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.
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