Stavudine (d4T)

Catalog No.S1398 Synonyms: BMY-27857, Sanilvudine, NSC 163661

Stavudine (d4T) Chemical Structure

Molecular Weight(MW): 224.21

Stavudine (d4T) is a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NARTI) active against HIV.

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Biological Activity

Description Stavudine (d4T) is a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NARTI) active against HIV.
Targets
Reverse transcriptase [1]
In vitro

Stavudine alteres the lipid phenotype, decreasing the lipid content and expression of markers involved in lipid metabolism, namely C/EBPalpha, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, adipocyte lipid binding protein 2, fatty acid synthase and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase. Stavudine drives 5-10% of 3T3-F442A cells towards apoptosis, and reduces the lipid content and survival of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Stavudine increases mitochondrial mass by two to fourfold, and loweres the mitochondrial membrane potential (JC-1 stain). [1] stavudine inhibits p24 antigen production by HIV-I in PBMC with EDsos ranging from 0.04 μM to 0.2 μM. [2] Stavudine produces significant mitochondrial dysfunction with a 1.5-fold increase in cellular lactate to pyruvate ratios. Stavudine causes a dose-dependent decrease in mtDNA amplification and a correlative increase in abundance of markers of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Stavudine treatment elevates mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), enhances mitochondrial oxidative stress, and contributes mechanistically to NRTI-induced toxicity. [3]

In vivo Stavudine (500 mg/kg/day) results in lack of significant oxidative mtDNA lesions (as assessed by long polymerase chain reaction experiments), and normal blood lactate/pyruvate ratios in lean mice. Stavudine (500 mg/kg/day) can decrease hepatic and muscle mtDNA in lean mice and can also cause ketoacidosis during fasting without altering mtDNA. Stavudine (500 mg/kg/day) depletes WAT mtDNA only in obese mice. [4]

Protocol

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro DMSO 45 mg/mL (200.7 mM)
Ethanol 15 mg/mL (66.9 mM)
Water Insoluble
In vivo Add solvents to the product individually and in order(Data is from Selleck tests instead of citations):
0.5% CMC Na
For best results, use promptly after mixing.
30mg/mL

* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 224.21
Formula

C10H12N2O4

CAS No. 3056-17-5
Storage powder
in solvent
Synonyms BMY-27857, Sanilvudine, NSC 163661

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Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment interventions Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT01178684 Completed -- HIV South East Asia Research Collaboration with Hawaii|University of Hawaii May 2010 --
NCT00455585 Completed Drug: nevirapine stavudine lamivudine HIV Infections Makerere University|Department of Foreign Affairs Ireland January 2007 Phase 4
NCT00235222 Unknown status Drug: stavudine HIV Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere|Bristol-Myers Squibb June 2004 Phase 4
NCT00116116 Completed Drug: efavirenz stavudine extended release lamivudine HIV Infections|AIDS Bristol-Myers Squibb March 2002 Phase 4

Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

Handling Instructions

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Reverse Transcriptase Signaling Pathway Map

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Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID