Molecular Weight(MW): 335.4
Tubastatin A is a potent and selective HDAC6 inhibitor with IC50 of 15 nM in a cell-free assay. It is selective against all the other isozymes (1000-fold) except HDAC8 (57-fold).
Cited by 8 Publications
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Control and MEC17 KD macrophages (RAW264.7) were treated with TBSA or DMSO for 12 hours followed by LPS treatment for indicated time. p38 phosphorylation were determined by immuno-blotting.
Nat Commun 2014 5, 3479. Tubastatin A purchased from Selleck.
HDACs inhibited gefitinib-induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells via a decrease in BAX/Ku70 interaction. H358 cells were treated with 5 umol/L tubastatin A (tubA), 0.5 lmol/L gefitinib or a combination of inhibitors for 96 hr as indicated. Endogenous BAX immunoprecipitations were performed and subjected to immunoblotting with Ku70-specific and BAX-specific antibodies. IgG: irrelevant immunoglobulin, used as negative controls. Input: cell lysate not subjected to immunoprecipitation.
Int J Cancer 2014 134(11):2560-71. Tubastatin A purchased from Selleck.
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2. For more details, such as half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) and working concentrations of each inhibitor, please click on the link of the inhibitor of interest.
3. "+" indicates inhibitory effect. Increased inhibition is marked by a higher "+" designation.
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|Description||Tubastatin A is a potent and selective HDAC6 inhibitor with IC50 of 15 nM in a cell-free assay. It is selective against all the other isozymes (1000-fold) except HDAC8 (57-fold).|
Tubastatin A is selective at all isozymes except HDAC8 and maintains over 1000-fold selectivity against all isoforms excluding HDAC8, where it has approximately 57-fold selectivity. Tubastatin A preferentially induces α-tubulin hyperacetylation at 2.5 μM. Slight induction of histone hyperacetylation is seen for Tubastatin A at 10 μM. Tubastatin A displays dose-dependent protection against homocysteic acid-induced neuronal cell death starting at 5 μM with near complete protection at 10 μM.  Tubastatin A (10 μM) induces an increase in acetylated-α-tubulin levels and the restoration of primary cilia expression in the cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (18-fold); and the restoration of primary cilia correlated with downregulated Hedgehog (Hh) and MAPK signaling pathways, as well as decreased cell proliferation rates (in average by 50%) and invasion (by 40%).  Tubastatin A shows significant inhibition of TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS stimulated human THP-1 macrophages with an IC50 of 272 nM and 712 nM. Tubastatin A inhibits nitric oxide (NO) secretion in murine Raw 264.7 macrophages dose depenndently with an IC50 of 4.2 μM. 
|In vivo||Tubastatin A reduces the growth of cholangiocarcinoma in vivo. Tubastatin A (10 mg/kg) induces a 6-fold lower mean tumor weights in syngeneic rat orthotopic model of cholangiocarcinoma, and reduction of the ratios of tumor weight to liver weight and body weight (5- and 5.6-fold, respectively), as well as a greater frequency of ciliated cholangiocytes compared with controls (29% vs 1.4%). Tubastatin A significantly decreases the amount of PCNA-positive cells in the treated tumors compared with vehicle controls (34% vs 65%).  Tubastat A shows significant inhibition of paw volume at 30 mg/kg i.p. in a Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced animal model of inflammation. Tubastat A (30 mg/kg i.p.) significant attenuates clinical scores (~ 70%), and IL-6 expression in paw tissues of collagen induced arthritis DBA1 mouse. |
HDAC enzymatic assays:Tubastatin A is dissolved and diluted in assay buffer (50 mM HEPES, pH 7.4, 100 mM KCl, 0.001% Tween-20, 0.05% BSA, and 20 μM tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine) to 6-fold of the final concentration. HDAC enzymes are diluted to 1.5-fold of the final concentration in assay buffer and pre-incubated with Tubastatin A for 10 minutes before the addition of the substrate. The amount of FTS (HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC6) or MAZ-1675 (HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC7, HDAC8, and HDAC9) used for each enzyme is equal to the Michaelis constant (Km), as determined by a titration curve. FTS or MAZ-1675 is diluted in assay buffer to 6-fold the final concentration with 0.3 μM sequencing grade trypsin. The substrate/trypsin mix is added to the enzyme/compound mix and the plate is shaken for 60 seconds and then placed into a SpectraMax M5 microtiter plate reader. The enzymatic reaction is monitored for release of 7-amino-4-methoxy-coumarin over 30 minutes, after deacetylation of the lysine side chain in the peptide substrate, and the linear rate of the reaction is calculated.
|In vitro||DMSO||67 mg/mL (199.76 mM)|
|In vivo||4% DMSO+30% PEG 300||5mg/mL|
* 1 mg/ml means slightly soluble or insoluble.
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