Flavopiridol (Alvocidib)

Catalog No.S1230

Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) competes with ATP to inhibit CDKs including CDK1, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 with IC50 of ~ 40 nM. It is 7.5-fold more selective for CDK1, 2, 4, 6 versus CDK7. Flavopiridol is initially found to inhibit EGFR and PKA. Phase 1/2.

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Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) Chemical Structure

Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) Chemical Structure
Molecular Weight: 401.84

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Product Description

Biological Activity

Description Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) competes with ATP to inhibit CDKs including CDK1, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 with IC50 of ~ 40 nM. It is 7.5-fold more selective for CDK1, 2, 4, 6 versus CDK7. Flavopiridol is initially found to inhibit EGFR and PKA. Phase 1/2.
Targets CDK1 [1] CDK2 [1] CDK4 [1] CDK6 [1] CDK7 [1]
IC50 40 nM 40 nM 40 nM 40 nM 300 nM
In vitro Flavopiridol displays less activity against unrelated kinases such as MAP, PAK, PKC, and EGFR with IC50 of >14 μM. Flavopiridol significantly inhibits the colony growth of HCT116, A2780, PC3, and Mia PaCa-2 cells with IC50 of 13 nM, 15 nM, 10 nM and 36 nM, respecitively. [1] Flavopiridol also potently inhibits the activity of Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) with an IC50 of 280 nm. [2] Compared with other CDKs, Flavopiridol inhibits the activity of CDK7 less potently with IC50 of 875 nM. Flavopiridol (0.5 μM) inhibits both pSer807/811 Rb and pThr199 NPM, whereas mild changes are observed at pThr821 Rb. Flavopiridol also decreases the overall RNA polymerase II level, as well as the phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II on the CTD repeats at Ser2 Ser5. [3] As a broad spectrum CDK inhibitor, Flavopiridol can inhibit cell cycle progression in either G1 or G2. Flavopiridol (0.3 μM) induces G1 arrest in either MCF-7 or MDA-MB-468 cells by inhibition of the CDK4 or CDK2 kinase activity. [4] Flavopiridol exhibits potent cytotoxicity against a wide variety of tumor cell lines with IC50 values ranging form 16 nM for LNCAP to 130 nM for K562. [5]
In vivo Administration of Flavopiridol at 7.5 mg/kg for 7 days displays slight antitumor activity against P388 murine leukemia, resulting in %T/C value of 110, and active against the human A2780 ovarian carcinoma implanted sc in nude mice, producing 1.5 log cell kill (LCK). [5] Flavopiridol treatment at 1-2.5 mg/kg for 10 days significantly suppresses collagen-induced arthritis in mice in a dose-dependent manner, by inhibiting synovial hyperplasia and joint destruction, whereas serum concentrations of anti-collagen type II (CII) Abs and proliferative responses to CII are maintained. [6] In the p21-intact Hct116 xenografts in nude mice, administration of CPT-11 (100 mg/kg) followed by Flavopiridol (3 mg/kg) 7 and 16 hours later significantly inhibits tumor regression by 86% and 82%, respectively, displaying >2 fold inhibition compared with CPT-11 alone by 40 %. The combination produces ~30% complete response rate (CR) in contrast to CPT-11 alone where no CR is found. [7]
Features First CDK inhibitor to be used in human clinical trials.

Protocol(Only for Reference)

Kinase Assay:

[1]

CDK kinase assay For CDK1/cyclin B1 kinase assay, kinase reactions consist of 100 ng of baculovirus expressed GST-CDK1/cyclin B1 (human) complex, 1 μg histone HI, 0.2 μCi [γ-33P]ATP, 25 μM ATP in 50 μL kinase buffer (50 mM Tris, pH 8.0, 10 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EGTA, 0.5 mM DTT). For CDK2/cyclin E kinase assay, kinase reactions consist of 5 ng of baculovirus expressed GST-CDK2/cyclin E (human) complex, 0.5 μg GST-RB fusion protein (amino acids 776-928 of retinoblastoma protein), 0.2 μCi [γ-33P]ATP, 25 μM ATP in 50 μL kinase buffer (50 mM Hepes, pH 8.0, 10 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EGTA, 2 mM DTT). For CDK4/cyclin D1 kinase assay, kinase reactions consist of 150 ng of baculovirus expressed GST-CDK4/cyclin D1 (human), 280 ng of Stag-cyclin D1, 0.5 μg GST-RB fusion protein (amino acids 776-928 of retinoblastoma protein), 0.2 μCi [γ-33P]ATP, 25 μM ATP in 50 μL kinase buffer (50 mM Hepes, pH 8.0, 10 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EGTA, 2 mM DTT). Reactions are incubated for 45 minutes for CDK1 and CDK2, or 1 hour for CDK4 at 30 °C and stopped by the addition of cold trichloroacetic acid (TCA) to a final concentration 15%. TCA precipitates are collected onto GF/C unifilter plates using a Filtermate universal harvester and the filters are quantitated using a TopCount 96-well liquid scintillation counter. Flavopiridol is dissolved at 10 mM in dimethylformamide (DMF) and evaluated at six concentrations, each in triplicate. The final concentration of DMF in the assay = 2%. IC50 values are derived by nonlinear regression analysis and have a coefficient of variance = 16%. To assay Flavopiridol activity on CDK6, a filter-binding assay is established. The following are combined in the reaction mixture: 2 μL of CDK6 (0.7 mg/μL), 5 μL of histone H1 (6 mg/mL), 14 μL of kinase buffer (60 mM β-glycerophosphate, 30 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate, 25 mM MOPS (pH 7.0), 5 mM EGTA, 15 mM MgCl2, 1 mM DTT, 0.1 mM Na-vanadate), 3 μL of increasing concentrations of Flavopiridol diluted in 50% DMSO, and 6 μL of 33P-ATP (1 mCi/mL) in nonradioactive ATP at 90 μM concentration (final concentration: 15 μM). The assay is initiated by the addition of 33P-ATP. The reaction is incubated for 20 minutes at 30°C. A 25 μL aliquot of the supernatant is then spotted onto Whatman P81 phosphocellulose paper. Filters are washed 5 times with 1% phosphoric acid solution. Wet filters are counted in the presence of 1 mL of scintillation fluid. Cdk9 activity is measured using 50 nM of recombinant Cdk9/cyclin T in 50 mM HEPES pH 7.5, 10 mM MgCl2, 1 mM DTT, 3 μM Na3VO4, 150 μM RNA polymerase CDT peptide and 80 μM ATP. Cdk7 assay is performed in the same buffer using 37 nM of purified kinase in the presence of 200 μM ATP and 10 μM myelin binding protein as a substrate. The potency of Flavopiridol toward CDK9 and CDK7 is determined using either a strong anion exchanger (Dowex 1-X8 resin, formate form)-based assay or a scintillation proximity assay. IC50 values are calculated from the dose-response curves.

Cell Assay:

[5]

Cell lines MCF-7, LNCAP, PC3, HCT116, CACO-2, A549, HL60, K562 cells and et al.
Concentrations Dissolved in DMSO, final concentrations ~10 μM
Incubation Time 72 hours
Method

Cells are exposed to various concentrations of Flavopiridol for 72 hours at which time the tetrazolium dye, MTS in combination with phenazine methosulfate, is added. After 3 hours, the absorbency is measured at 492 nm, which is proportional to the number of viable cells. The results are expressed as IC50 values. For cell Cycle analysis, cells are fixed in paraformaldehyde and ethanol, washed, resuspended in staining solution of TdT enzyme and FITC-dUTP, washed, stained with PI following RNase treatment, and then analyzed by flow cytometry.

Animal Study:

[5]

Animal Models Female Balb/c×DBA/2J F1 mice inoculated ip with P388 ascites leukemic cells, and Balb/c nu/nu nude mice subcutaneous implanted with A2780, Br-cycE, or A431 cells
Formulation Dissolved in a mixture of Cremophor/ethanol (50:50), and diluted in water
Dosages ~7.5 mg/kg/day
Administration Injection i.p.

Conversion of different model animals based on BSA (Value based on data from FDA Draft Guidelines)

SpeciesMouseRatRabbitGuinea pigHamsterDog
Weight (kg)0.020.151.80.40.0810
Body Surface Area (m2)0.0070.0250.150.050.020.5
Km factor36128520
Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by  Animal B Km
Animal A Km

For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.

Rat dose (mg/kg) = mouse dose (22.4 mg/kg) ×  mouse Km(3)  = 11.2 mg/kg
rat Km(6)
1

References

[1] Kim KS, et al. J Med Chem, 2000, 43(22), 4126-4134.

[2] Lu H, et al. J Med Chem, 2005, 48(3), 737-743.

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Clinical Trial Information( data from http://clinicaltrials.gov, updated on 2016-06-25)

NCT Number Recruitment Conditions Sponsor
/Collaborators
Start Date Phases
NCT02520011 Recruiting Acute Myeloid Leukemia Tolero Pharmaceuticals, Inc. December 2015 Phase 2
NCT01349972 Completed Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome|Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0)|Ad  ...more Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome|Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0)|Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a)|Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b)|Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2)|Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1)|Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities|Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q)|Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22)|Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22)|Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22)|Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4)|Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a)|Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b)|Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia|Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia National Cancer Institute (NCI) April 2011 Phase 2
NCT01076556 Terminated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia|Prolymphocytic Leukemia|Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma|Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia|Stage I Chronic L  ...more Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia|Prolymphocytic Leukemia|Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma|Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia|Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia|Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma|Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia|Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma|Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia|Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma|Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia|Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma National Cancer Institute (NCI) April 2010 Phase 1
NCT00991952 Completed Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction|Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach|Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach|Mixed Adenocarcinoma  ...more Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction|Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach|Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach|Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach|Recurrent Gastric Cancer|Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer|Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer|Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer|Stage IV Gastric Cancer National Cancer Institute (NCI) September 2009 Phase 2
NCT00957905 Completed Recurrent Extragonadal Seminoma|Recurrent Malignant Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor|Recurrent Malignant Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor|  ...more Recurrent Extragonadal Seminoma|Recurrent Malignant Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor|Recurrent Malignant Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor|Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor|Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor|Stage III Testicular Cancer|Stage IV Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor|Stage IV Extragonadal Seminoma|Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor National Cancer Institute (NCI) June 2009 Phase 2

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Chemical Information

Download Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) SDF
Molecular Weight (MW) 401.84
Formula

C21H20ClNO5

CAS No. 146426-40-6
Storage 3 years -20℃powder
6 months-80℃in solvent
Synonyms NSC 649890 HCl,HMR-1275
Solubility (25°C) * In vitro DMSO 15 mg/mL (37.32 mM)
Ethanol 8 mg/mL (19.9 mM)
Water <1 mg/mL (<1 mM)
In vivo
* <1 mg/ml means slightly soluble or insoluble.
* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.
Chemical Name 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-8-((3S,4R)-3-hydroxy-1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-4H-chromen-4-one

Customer Product Validation(1)


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Rating
Source PNAS 2011 108, 8417. Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) purchased from Selleck
Method Fluorescent Microscopy and Confocal Imaging
Cell Lines Tg:Pomc-Pttg embryo, Pomc-eGFP embryo
Concentrations 50 μM
Incubation Time 18-48 h
Results Although flavopiridol retarded early embryonic development before corticotroph ontogeny occurred, in vivo treatment of zebrafish embryos with R-roscovitine, olomoucine, PD-0332991, and CAY10572 starting at 18 hpf caused no apparent growth defect by 40 hpf. Strikingly, R-roscovitine-treated embryos exhibited approximately 40% reduction in pituitary POMC-eGFP expression compared with controls.

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