Catalog No.S1230 Synonyms: NSC 649890 HCl,HMR-1275
Molecular Weight(MW): 401.84
Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) competes with ATP to inhibit CDKs including CDK1, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 with IC50 of ~ 40 nM. It is 7.5-fold more selective for CDK1, 2, 4, 6 versus CDK7. Flavopiridol is initially found to inhibit EGFR and PKA. Phase 1/2.
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(C) In vivo treatment of Tg:Pomc-Pttg;Pomc-eGFP embryos with small-molecule CDK inhibitors (50 μM) or 0.2% DMSO as control from 18 to 40 hpf. One hundred to one hundred fifty embryos were treated with each compound. Representative images of live embryos are shown with gross morphology (Right) and pituitary Pomc-GFP-positive cells at higher magnification (Left) at 40 hpf. Embryos exposed to flavopiridol developed early developmental defect before pituitary POMC cell ontogeny occurs. (D) Relative expression of pituitary Pomc-eGFP fluorescence analyzed using Volocity 5.2 software (Improvision; mean ±SE of relative expression, n = 7). (E) R-roscovitine specifically suppresses expansion of pituitary POMC cells overexpressing zPttg from 18 to 48 hpf. Double transgenic Tg:Pomc-Pttg;Prl-RFP embryos were generated by breeding Tg:Pomc-Pttg fish with a previously generated PRL-RFP transgenic line, in which RFP was targeted to pituitary lactotrophs by a zebrafish Prolactin promoter (34). Representative fluorescent microscopy of pituitary POMC-eGFP (a and b) and PRL-RFP (c and d) expression in live Tg:Pomc-Pttg; Pomc-eGFP and Tg:Pomc-Pttg;Prl-RFP embryos treated with 0.2% DMSO (a and c) or 50 μM R-roscovitine (b and d). (F) Relative expression of pituitary POMC-eGFP or PRL-RFP fluorescence were analyzed (mean ±SE of relative expression; n = 10). Results represent one of three similar experiments;*P < 0.02 and **P < 0.000005. (Scale bar, 50 μm.)
PNAS 2011 108, 8417. Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) purchased from Selleck.
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|Description||Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) competes with ATP to inhibit CDKs including CDK1, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 with IC50 of ~ 40 nM. It is 7.5-fold more selective for CDK1, 2, 4, 6 versus CDK7. Flavopiridol is initially found to inhibit EGFR and PKA. Phase 1/2.|
|Features||First CDK inhibitor to be used in human clinical trials.|
Flavopiridol displays less activity against unrelated kinases such as MAP, PAK, PKC, and EGFR with IC50 of >14 μM. Flavopiridol significantly inhibits the colony growth of HCT116, A2780, PC3, and Mia PaCa-2 cells with IC50 of 13 nM, 15 nM, 10 nM and 36 nM, respecitively.  Flavopiridol also potently inhibits the activity of Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) with an IC50 of 280 nm.  Compared with other CDKs, Flavopiridol inhibits the activity of CDK7 less potently with IC50 of 875 nM. Flavopiridol (0.5 μM) inhibits both pSer807/811 Rb and pThr199 NPM, whereas mild changes are observed at pThr821 Rb. Flavopiridol also decreases the overall RNA polymerase II level, as well as the phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II on the CTD repeats at Ser2 Ser5.  As a broad spectrum CDK inhibitor, Flavopiridol can inhibit cell cycle progression in either G1 or G2. Flavopiridol (0.3 μM) induces G1 arrest in either MCF-7 or MDA-MB-468 cells by inhibition of the CDK4 or CDK2 kinase activity.  Flavopiridol exhibits potent cytotoxicity against a wide variety of tumor cell lines with IC50 values ranging form 16 nM for LNCAP to 130 nM for K562. 
|In vivo||Administration of Flavopiridol at 7.5 mg/kg for 7 days displays slight antitumor activity against P388 murine leukemia, resulting in %T/C value of 110, and active against the human A2780 ovarian carcinoma implanted sc in nude mice, producing 1.5 log cell kill (LCK).  Flavopiridol treatment at 1-2.5 mg/kg for 10 days significantly suppresses collagen-induced arthritis in mice in a dose-dependent manner, by inhibiting synovial hyperplasia and joint destruction, whereas serum concentrations of anti-collagen type II (CII) Abs and proliferative responses to CII are maintained.  In the p21-intact Hct116 xenografts in nude mice, administration of CPT-11 (100 mg/kg) followed by Flavopiridol (3 mg/kg) 7 and 16 hours later significantly inhibits tumor regression by 86% and 82%, respectively, displaying >2 fold inhibition compared with CPT-11 alone by 40 %. The combination produces ~30% complete response rate (CR) in contrast to CPT-11 alone where no CR is found. |
CDK kinase assay:For CDK1/cyclin B1 kinase assay, kinase reactions consist of 100 ng of baculovirus expressed GST-CDK1/cyclin B1 (human) complex, 1 μg histone HI, 0.2 μCi [γ-33P]ATP, 25 μM ATP in 50 μL kinase buffer (50 mM Tris, pH 8.0, 10 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EGTA, 0.5 mM DTT). For CDK2/cyclin E kinase assay, kinase reactions consist of 5 ng of baculovirus expressed GST-CDK2/cyclin E (human) complex, 0.5 μg GST-RB fusion protein (amino acids 776-928 of retinoblastoma protein), 0.2 μCi [γ-33P]ATP, 25 μM ATP in 50 μL kinase buffer (50 mM Hepes, pH 8.0, 10 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EGTA, 2 mM DTT). For CDK4/cyclin D1 kinase assay, kinase reactions consist of 150 ng of baculovirus expressed GST-CDK4/cyclin D1 (human), 280 ng of Stag-cyclin D1, 0.5 μg GST-RB fusion protein (amino acids 776-928 of retinoblastoma protein), 0.2 μCi [γ-33P]ATP, 25 μM ATP in 50 μL kinase buffer (50 mM Hepes, pH 8.0, 10 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EGTA, 2 mM DTT). Reactions are incubated for 45 minutes for CDK1 and CDK2, or 1 hour for CDK4 at 30 °C and stopped by the addition of cold trichloroacetic acid (TCA) to a final concentration 15%. TCA precipitates are collected onto GF/C unifilter plates using a Filtermate universal harvester and the filters are quantitated using a TopCount 96-well liquid scintillation counter. Flavopiridol is dissolved at 10 mM in dimethylformamide (DMF) and evaluated at six concentrations, each in triplicate. The final concentration of DMF in the assay = 2%. IC50 values are derived by nonlinear regression analysis and have a coefficient of variance = 16%. To assay Flavopiridol activity on CDK6, a filter-binding assay is established. The following are combined in the reaction mixture: 2 μL of CDK6 (0.7 mg/μL), 5 μL of histone H1 (6 mg/mL), 14 μL of kinase buffer (60 mM β-glycerophosphate, 30 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate, 25 mM MOPS (pH 7.0), 5 mM EGTA, 15 mM MgCl2, 1 mM DTT, 0.1 mM Na-vanadate), 3 μL of increasing concentrations of Flavopiridol diluted in 50% DMSO, and 6 μL of 33P-ATP (1 mCi/mL) in nonradioactive ATP at 90 μM concentration (final concentration: 15 μM). The assay is initiated by the addition of 33P-ATP. The reaction is incubated for 20 minutes at 30°C. A 25 μL aliquot of the supernatant is then spotted onto Whatman P81 phosphocellulose paper. Filters are washed 5 times with 1% phosphoric acid solution. Wet filters are counted in the presence of 1 mL of scintillation fluid. Cdk9 activity is measured using 50 nM of recombinant Cdk9/cyclin T in 50 mM HEPES pH 7.5, 10 mM MgCl2, 1 mM DTT, 3 μM Na3VO4, 150 μM RNA polymerase CDT peptide and 80 μM ATP. Cdk7 assay is performed in the same buffer using 37 nM of purified kinase in the presence of 200 μM ATP and 10 μM myelin binding protein as a substrate. The potency of Flavopiridol toward CDK9 and CDK7 is determined using either a strong anion exchanger (Dowex 1-X8 resin, formate form)-based assay or a scintillation proximity assay. IC50 values are calculated from the dose-response curves.
-  Kim KS, et al. J Med Chem, 2000, 43(22), 4126-4134.
-  Lu H, et al. J Med Chem, 2005, 48(3), 737-743.
-  Montagnoli A, et al. Nat Chem Biol, 2008, 4(6), 357-365.
|In vitro||DMSO||15 mg/mL (37.32 mM)|
|Ethanol||8 mg/mL (19.9 mM)|
* 1 mg/ml means slightly soluble or insoluble.
* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.
|Synonyms||NSC 649890 HCl,HMR-1275|
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Clinical Trial Information
|NCT Number||Recruitment||Conditions||Sponsor/Collaborators||Start Date||Phases|
|NCT00094978||Terminated||Carcinoma, Small Cell|Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung|Esophageal Neoplasms|Mesothelioma||National Cancer Institute (NCI)|National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)||October 25, 2004||Phase 1|
|NCT02520011||Recruiting||Acute Myeloid Leukemia||Tolero Pharmaceuticals, Inc.||December 2015||Phase 2|
|NCT01349972||Completed||Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome|Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0)|Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a)|Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b)|Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2)|Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1)|Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities|Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q)|Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22)|Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22)|Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22)|Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4)|Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a)|Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b)|Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia|Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia||National Cancer Institute (NCI)||April 2011||Phase 2|
|NCT01076556||Terminated||Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia|Prolymphocytic Leukemia|Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma|Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia|Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia|Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma|Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia|Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma|Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia|Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma|Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia|Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma||National Cancer Institute (NCI)||April 2010||Phase 1|
|NCT00991952||Completed||Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction|Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach|Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach|Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach|Recurrent Gastric Cancer|Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer|Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer|Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer|Stage IV Gastric Cancer||National Cancer Institute (NCI)||September 2009||Phase 2|
|NCT00957905||Completed||Recurrent Extragonadal Seminoma|Recurrent Malignant Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor|Recurrent Malignant Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor|Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor|Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor|Stage III Testicular Cancer|Stage IV Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor|Stage IV Extragonadal Seminoma|Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor||National Cancer Institute (NCI)||June 2009||Phase 2|
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