CHIR-99021 (CT99021)

Catalog No.S1263

CHIR-99021 (CT99021) Chemical Structure

Molecular Weight(MW): 465.34

CHIR-99021 (CT99021) is a GSK-3α and GSK-3β inhibitor with IC50 of 10 nM and 6.7 nM, respectively. CHIR99201 does not exhibit cross-reactivity against cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and shows a 350-fold selectivity toward GSK-3β compared to CDKs.

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1 Customer Review

  • For MTT assays, cells (2,000 ~ 5,000 cells/well) were subcultured into 96-well plates according to their growth properties. Cell proliferation was assayed at 72 hr after treatment of CHIR-99021 by adding 20 μl of 5 mg/ml 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) solution per 100 μl of growth medium. After incubating for 3-4 h at 37°C, the media were removed and 150 µl/well of MTT solvent (either absolute DMSO or isopropanol containing 4 mM HCl and 0.1% Nonidet-40) was added to dissolve the formazan. The absorbance of each well was measured by ELx808 (BioTek, Winooski, VT) or Wallac Victor2 (Perkin-Elmer Life Sciences, Boston, MA) Microplate Reader. Viable cells are presented as percent of control, vehicle-treated cells. 

    Dr. Yong-Weon Yi from Georgetown University Medical Center. CHIR-99021 (CT99021) purchased from Selleck.

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Biological Activity

Description CHIR-99021 (CT99021) is a GSK-3α and GSK-3β inhibitor with IC50 of 10 nM and 6.7 nM, respectively. CHIR99201 does not exhibit cross-reactivity against cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and shows a 350-fold selectivity toward GSK-3β compared to CDKs.
GSK-3β [1]
(Cell-free assay)
GSK-3α [1]
(Cell-free assay)
6.7 nM 10 nM
In vitro

CHIR-99021 shows greater than 500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 versus its closest homologs CDC2 and ERK2, as well as other protein kinases. Furthermore, CHIR-99021 shows only weak binding to a panel of 22 pharmacologically relevant receptors and little inhibitory activity against a panel of 23 nonkinase enzymes. CHIR-99021 induces the activation of glycogen synthase (GS) in insulin receptor-expressing CHO-IR cells with EC50 of 0.763 μM[1].

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
human SW982 cell MUfHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MofQTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBUXzl6MjDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEBqdiCjIHPlcIwhfmmjYnnsbZR6KGG|c3H5MEBKSzVyPUKxOE4yPiCwTT6= M{\G[nNCVkeHUh?=
human GCT cell M3LLWmdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NVHHZm5ZUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCJQ2SgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME2zNFYvPzJibl2u MXPTRW5ITVJ?
human 769-P cell MUHHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M{LtPGlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hPzZ7LWCgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME21PFQvQTlibl2u Ml3hV2FPT0WU
human LOXIMVI cell MUXHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MkiwTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBNV1iLTW\JJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9OVg5NjN{IH7NMi=> MXfTRW5ITVJ?
human D-336MG cell M37Xb2dzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MXLJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJGQuOzN4TVegZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME24OFYvOiCwTT6= M4ricHNCVkeHUh?=
human S-117 cell MVfHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MWPJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJHMuOTF5IHPlcIwh\3Kxd4ToJIlvKGFiY3XscEB3cWGkaXzpeJkh[XO|YYmsJGlEPTB;OUKxMlMyKG6PLh?= MnH5V2FPT0WU
human D-247MG cell NH3NXYdIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= MkTPTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBFNTJ2N13HJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9PVQ5NjV{IH7NMi=> NIHGepBUSU6JRWK=
human TYK-nu cell NHTNNopIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= NYLlZ2Q2UW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCWWVutcpUh[2WubDDndo94fGhiaX6gZUBk\WyuII\pZYJqdGm2eTDhd5NigSxiSVO1NF0yNjB5OTFOwG0v MUnTRW5ITVJ?
human A498 cell NIDoZWJIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= MWDJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJGE1QThiY3XscEBoem:5dHigbY4h[SClZXzsJJZq[WKrbHn0fUBie3OjeTygTWM2OD1zLkOg{txONg>? M3f4PXNCVkeHUh?=
human HepG2 cells MkX6SpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MVGzJIg> NH6yWGFKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIFfTT|Mu[mW2YTDpckBpfW2jbjDI[ZBIOiClZXzsd{Bie3Onc4Pl[EBieyCrbnPvdpBwemG2aX;uJI9nKFt|SG3ncJVkd3OnIHnueI8h\2y7Y3;n[Y4h[W[2ZYKgN{BpenNiYomgcIlyfWmmIIPjbY51cWyuYYTpc44h[2:3boTpcoc> NFHWfHczOjJ4MUCyNy=>
human BCPAP cell MXfHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MlnoTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBDS1CDUDDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEBqdiCjIHPlcIwhfmmjYnnsbZR6KGG|c3H5MEBKSzVyPUGuOlch|ryPLh?= NILY[nBUSU6JRWK=
human KYSE-180 cell MWjHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NWCzPVBYUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCNWWPFMVE5OCClZXzsJIdzd3e2aDDpckBiKGOnbHygeoli[mmuaYT5JIF{e2G7LDDJR|UxRTFwN{Og{txONg>? NGLH[5VUSU6JRWK=
human MIA-PaCa-2 cell M1ntRWdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MnfNTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBOUUFvUHHDZU0zKGOnbHyg[5Jwf3SqIHnuJIEh[2WubDD2bYFjcWyrdImgZZN{[XluIFnDOVA:OS55NjFOwG0v MlvjV2FPT0WU
human HCC1395 cell M{PFPGdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 Ml7hTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBJS0NzM{m1JINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9NU44QCEQvF2u M{LT[nNCVkeHUh?=
human RS4-11 cell MWLHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MmfqTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBTWzRvMUGgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME2xMlk2KM7:TT6= NXm4eZNvW0GQR1XS
human NCI-H2122 cell MVrHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M3K2RWlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hVkOLLViyNVIzKGOnbHyg[5Jwf3SqIHnuJIEh[2WubDD2bYFjcWyrdImgZZN{[XluIFnDOVA:Oi5{ODFOwG0v MUPTRW5ITVJ?
human SNU-423 cell M{nrfmdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MmXtTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBUVlVvNEKzJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZnwxIxiSVO1NF0zNjVizszNMi=> M3ftVXNCVkeHUh?=
human SK-LMS-1 cell M3LQe2dzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MUnJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJHNMNUyPUz2xJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9Nk43PCEQvF2u M2PLR3NCVkeHUh?=
human RPMI-7951 cell MU\Hdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M3TlcGlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hWlCPST23PVUyKGOnbHyg[5Jwf3SqIHnuJIEh[2WubDD2bYFjcWyrdImgZZN{[XoxvJygTWM2OD1{Lkeg{txONg>? M4nkNHNCVkeHUh?=
human COLO-829 cell MoezS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? NYrjb5JSUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCFT1zPMVgzQSClZXzsJIdzd3e2aDDpckBiKGOnbHygeoli[mmuaYT5JIF{e2G7LDDJR|UxRTJwN{[1OEDPxE1w NGHkPZRUSU6JRWK=
human SCC-9 cell M3fQWGdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MnPsTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBUS0NvOTDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEBqdiCjIHPlcIwhfmmjYnnsbZR6KGG|c3H5MEBKSzVyPUKuPVUh|ryPLh?= MXfTRW5ITVJ?
human A704 cell NWT1e41VT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= MYDJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJGE4ODRiY3XscEBoem:5dHigbY4h[SClZXzsJJZq[WKrbHn0fUBie3OjeTygTWM2OD1|LkC4NVIh|ryPLh?= NVTyUGJNW0GQR1XS
human HOP-62 cell NX6wSoxNT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= M{nVbWlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hUE:SLU[yJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9N{4{PjB3NDFOwG0v M3zGWXNCVkeHUh?=
human HCC1569 cell NXvBO5BnT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= M{S2TmlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hUEOFMUW2PUBk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVMvPDh|MEWg{txONg>? NELBcFZUSU6JRWK=
human A172 cell MUnHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MWfJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJGEyPzJiY3XscEBoem:5dHigbY4h[SClZXzsJJZq[WKrbHn0fUBie3OjeTygTWM2OD1|Lke1OFk5KM7:TT6= MnXXV2FPT0WU
human MOLT-16 cell M1PEcmdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MX3Jcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJG1QVFRvMU[gZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME2zMlg5PTV4IN88UU4> Mn;MV2FPT0WU
human TE-15 cell NEDvNZNIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= M4noeGlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hXEVvMUWgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME2zMlk2OzR|IN88UU4> MUPTRW5ITVJ?
human OE19 cell M1XvUGdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 Mk\ETY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBQTTF7IHPlcIwh\3Kxd4ToJIlvKGFiY3XscEB3cWGkaXzpeJkh[XO|YYmsJGlEPTB;Mz65OlQ2OSEQvF2u MWfTRW5ITVJ?
human MHH-ES-1 cell NWXIVZkyT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= MkGwTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBOUEhvRWOtNUBk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVQvODR3NEWg{txONg>? MYrTRW5ITVJ?
human NKM-1 cell M1XXZWdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 M17sc2lvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hVkuPLUGgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME20MlE{QTdzIN88UU4> M4exbHNCVkeHUh?=
human RCC10RGB cell MmrWS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? NIPnfJZKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKFKFQ{GwVmdDKGOnbHyg[5Jwf3SqIHnuJIEh[2WubDD2bYFjcWyrdImgZZN{[XluIFnDOVA:PC5{OUS3PUDPxE1? NHXidmdUSU6JRWK=
human BxPC-3 cell Ml3lS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? NXfPOYF7UW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCEeGDDMVMh[2WubDDndo94fGhiaX6gZUBk\WyuII\pZYJqdGm2eTDhd5NigSxiSVO1NF01NjdyM{mxJO69VS5? NInOZZpUSU6JRWK=
human ALL-PO cell NFzHVINIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= M3jtfmlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hSUyOLWDPJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9OE45Ozh3ODFOwG0v NUXGdIdTW0GQR1XS
human SK-OV-3 cell M{OwRmdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MnnvTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBUUy2RVj2zJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9OE46QTN2IN88UU4> Ml7DV2FPT0WU
human SW1710 cell MkjRS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? Mk\DTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBUXzF5MUCgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME21MlQzPDV4IN88UU4> NVXEd3ZOW0GQR1XS

... Click to View More Cell Line Experimental Data

In vivo Oral administration of CHIR-99021 at 30 mg/kg enhances glucose metabolism in a rodent model of type 2 diabetes, with a maximal plasma glucose reduction of nearly 150 mg/dl 3-4 hours after administration, while plasma insulin remains at or below control levels. Oral administration of CHIR-99021 at 16 or 48 mg/kg 1 hour before oral glucose challenges in ZDF rats significantly improves glucose tolerance with 14% and 33% reduction in plasma glucose at 16 mg/kg and 48 mg/kg, respectively, and the higher dose of CHIR-99021 also reduces hyperglycemia before the oral glucose challenge[1].


Cell Research:


+ Expand
  • Cell lines: Insulin receptor–expressing CHO-IR cells; Primary rat hepatocytes
  • Concentrations: 0.01-10 μM
  • Incubation Time: 30 min
  • Method:

    CHO-IR cells expressing human insulin receptor are grown to 80% confluence in Hamm’s F12 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum and without hypoxanthine. Trypsinized cells are seeded in 6-well plates at 1 × 106 cells/well in 2 ml of medium without fetal bovine serum. After 24 h, medium is replaced with 1 ml of serum-free medium containing GSK-3 inhibitor or control (final DMSO concentration <0.1%) for 30 min at 37°C. Cells are lysed and centrifuged 15 min at 4°C/14000g. The activity ratio of GS is calculated as the GS activity in the absence of glucose-6-phosphate divided by the activity in the presence of 5 mmol/l glucose-6-phosphate, using the filter paper assay of Thomas et al.

    (Only for Reference)
Animal Research:


+ Expand
  • Animal Models: Female db/db mice; Male ZDF rats
  • Formulation: HCl salts formulated
  • Dosages: 8-48 mg/kg
  • Administration: oral administration
    (Only for Reference)

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro DMSO 10 mg/mL warmed (21.48 mM)
Water Insoluble
Ethanol Insoluble
In vivo Add solvents individually and in order:
4% DMSO+30% PEG 300+ddH2O

* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 465.34


CAS No. 252917-06-9
Storage powder
Synonyms N/A

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Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID