PD98059

Catalog No.S1177

PD98059 Chemical Structure

Molecular Weight(MW): 267.28

PD98059 is a non-ATP competitive MEK inhibitor with IC50 of 2 μM in a cell-free assay, specifically inhibits MEK-1-mediated activation of MAPK; does not directly inhibit ERK1 or ERK2.

Size Price Stock Quantity  
In DMSO USD 134 In stock
USD 147 In stock
USD 470 In stock
USD 670 In stock

Free Overnight Delivery on orders over $ 500
Next day delivery by 10:00 a.m. Order now.

Cited by 48 Publications

9 Customer Reviews

  • Nature, 2016, 537(7620):422-427.. PD98059 purchased from Selleck.

     

    Melanoma cell viability and in vivo growth by cyclindependent kinase 2/4 inhibition. Western blot analysis for c-Jun, phosphorylated-ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) (p-ERK1/2), and total ERK1/2 protein levels was done for human melanoma cell lines treated with the BRAFV600E inhibitor GDC-0879 (1 μM), or MEK inhibitors CI-1040 (1 μM), U0126 (1 μM), and PD98059 (10 μM) for 18 hours.

    J Natl Cancer Inst 2012 104(21), 1673-9. PD98059 purchased from Selleck.

  •  

    Melanoma cell viability and in vivo growth by cyclindependent kinase 2/4 inhibition. In vivo growth of LOXIMVI xenografts in athymic nude Foxn1nu mice is shown. Tumors were allowed to grow to a maximum volume of 250 mm3, and the mice were subsequently treated daily at the indicated dose levels with CDK2/4 inhibitors by intraperitoneal injection in combination with a BRAFV600E- or MEK-inhibitor. CDK2/4 inhibitor (CVT-313/indolocarbazole CDK4-I) treatment sensitizes tumors to GDC-0879 and CI1040.

    J Natl Cancer Inst 2012 104(21), 1673-9. PD98059 purchased from Selleck.

    effect of ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 (1, 5, and 10 μM) on SRP72 protein expression was evaluated on Jurkat cells stimulated with rhIL-1. The cells were harvested at 0,120, and 240 min, and the protein expression was verified by WB using antibodies against human SRP72, human SRP54 (nonphosphorylated SRP protein), and humanGAPDHas constitutive protein.Adecreased SRP72 expression at 10 μM and 240 min was found.

     

     

    J Biol Chem 2010 285, 32824-32833. PD98059 purchased from Selleck.

  • C, effect of ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 (1, 5, and 10 μM) was evaluated in SRP72-immunoprecipitated cell lysates. WB using anti-phosphoserine antibody showed a decreased SRP72 band when used as the inhibitor at concentrations of 1 μM at 240 min, 5 μM at 120 min, and 10 μM at 120 and 240 min (lanes 3, 5, 8, and 9). D, results were analyzed and RUA illustrated, finding significant results at 1 μM at 240 versus 0, 5 μM at 120 versus 0, and 10 μM at 120 versus 0 min.

     

     

    J Biol Chem 2010 285, 32824-32833. PD98059 purchased from Selleck.

    We used real time RT-PCR to investigate the effects of PD98059 on SRP72 mRNA expression. All the samples were treated under the same experimental conditions used in protein tests done by WB, and phosphorylation was measured indirectly by IP-WB. The results did not show significant changes on the mRNA expression of SRP72 after the treatment with these inhibitors.

     

     

    J Biol Chem 2010 285, 32824-32833. PD98059 purchased from Selleck.

  •  

    Activation of a TLR2eERK1/2 pathway in MDDC. (C) MDDC were either untreated or treated with C. pneumoniae alone or in the presence of the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 for 48 h. IL-12p70 and IL-10 release in culture media was assessed by ELISA. (D) MDDC were treated as in panel C for 48 h and then cocultured with purified allogeneic CD3t T cells. On day 12, supernatants were collected, and secreted cytokines were measured by ELISA.

    Microbes Infect 2013 15, 105-14. PD98059 purchased from Selleck.

    HepG2 cells, “Pnt-2” primary HCC cells or THLE-2 normal liver cells were pretreated with PD-98059 (1 mM) or MEK-162 (“MEK”, 1 mM) for 1 h prior toWAY-600 (“WAY”, 100 nM) treatment, after applied period, cell viability and apoptosis were tested by MTT assay (F and H).

    Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2016, 474(2):330-7.. PD98059 purchased from Selleck.

  • After starved in serum-free medium for 24h,T47D cells incubated with the indicated concentrations of  PD98059 for 3h,followed by 20-minute  stimolation of 100ng/ml EGF.

     

    2010 Dr. Zhang of Tianjin Medical University. PD98059 purchased from Selleck.

Purity & Quality Control

Choose Selective MEK Inhibitors

Click to view more

Notes:

2. For more details, such as half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) and working concentrations of each inhibitor, please click on the link of the inhibitor of interest.
3. "+" indicates inhibitory effect. Increased inhibition is marked by a higher "+" designation.
4. Orange "√" refers to compounds which do inhibitory effects on the related isoform, but without specific value.

Biological Activity

Description PD98059 is a non-ATP competitive MEK inhibitor with IC50 of 2 μM in a cell-free assay, specifically inhibits MEK-1-mediated activation of MAPK; does not directly inhibit ERK1 or ERK2.
Features Does not inhibit c-Raf phosphorylated MEK1.
Targets
MEK1 [1]
(Cell-free assay)
2 μM
In vitro

PD98059 inhibits either basal MEK1 or a partially activated MEK produced by mutation of serine at residues 218 and 222 to glutamate (MEK-2E) with IC50 of 2 μM. PD98059 does not inhibit the MAPK homologues JNK and P38. PD98059 is highly selective against MEK, as it does not inhibit a number of other kinase activities including Raf kinase, cAMP-dependent kinase, protein kinase C, v-Src, epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor kinase, insulin receptor kinase, PDGF receptor kinase, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. PD98059 inhibits PDGF-stimulated activation of MAPK and thymidine incorporation into 3T3 cells with IC50 of ~10 μM and ~7 μM, respectively. [1] PD98059 potently prevents the activation of MEK1 by Raf or MEK kinase with IC50 of 4 μM, and weakly inhibits the activation of MEK2 by Raf with IC50 of 50 μM. PD98059 does not inhibit the activation of MEK homologues MKK4 and RK kinase that participate in stress and interleukin-1-stimulated kinase cascades in KB and PC12 cells, and the activation of p70 S6 kinase by insulin or epidermal growth factor in Swiss 3T3 cells. [2] PD98059 completely blocks the nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced differentiation of PC12 cells without altering cell viability. [3] PD98059 inhibits the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells in the culture containing RANKL in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in an apparent decrease of TRAP-positive cells. [4]

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
H1355 Mo\vSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MUKyOUDPxE1? M1LuVlEhcA>? MkfvZox2dnS|IITo[UBDY2GfUD3pcoR2[2WmIHnuZ5Jm[XOnIHnuJJBpd3OyaH:tR4hsOSCjbnSgdIhwe3Cqbz3FVmsh\XiycnXzd4lwdg>? MYqyOVc3QTF6MR?=
MCF-7  M3PsOmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MYixNEDPxE1? MUGxJIg> NUTGUVRscW6qaXLpeJMhUUxvMUit[Y5p[W6lZXSgZ4VtdCCvaXfyZZRqd25? NWnk[VROOjV5MkewNVE>
HepG2  NVrRR4k4TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= M3TjfVExKM7:TR?= M4rZVlUhcA>? NGPOfmhjdG:la4OgdIhwe3Cqb4L5cIF1\WRiTVHQT5MhcW6mdXPl[EBjgSCneH;n[Y5wfXNiVFfGMe6zOQ>? MVqyOVU3ODR6OB?=
HepG2  MoLlS5Jwf3SqIFnubIljcXSrb36gRZN{[Xl? Mmq1NlAh|ryP Mlv1NlQhcA>? M4rvbJN2eHC{ZYPz[ZMhXEeILd8yNU1qdmS3Y3XkJINmdGxicILvcIln\XKjdHnvckBidmRiaX72ZZNqd25? Ml;aNlU2PjB2OEi=
MDA-MB-231 MnnpSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MYWyOUDPxE1? NIPnfIgzNTNiaB?= M2DPVYRm[3KnYYPld{BxNUWUS{GvNkBidmRiU{GwNGE1KGW6cILld5Nqd25? MXGyOVU2PTh5NR?=
SW480 MYfGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MXiyNOKh|ryP NYjkRVh3OcLiaB?= M1;kSpJm\HWlZYOgeIhmKGW6cILld5Nqd25ib3[gRXRHOyCycn;0[Ylv MX2yOVQ1PzhzNh?=
HCT-15 MlX3SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MX:xJIg> NV20TVBF[XS2ZX71ZZRmeyCSR1WyMYlv\HWlZXSgdIhwe3Cqb4L5cIF1cW:wIH;mJGVzc8Li Mmf4NlU1OzF2MkW=
HCT-15 MX3BdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? NWi0[pNmOSCq MXnhZo9tcXOqZYOgeIhmKHC{b4TlZ5RqfmViZX\m[YN1eyCxZjDQS2UzyqCjZ3HpcpN1KGO3cnP1cYlvNWmwZIXj[YQh[XCxcITvd4l{ MnnaNlU1OzF2MkW=
786-O MYLBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? NF\IN2k2OMLizszN NHXhbnkzPCCq MXXwc5RmdnSrYYTld:KhfGinIIDyc{1ieG:ydH;0bYMh\W[oZXP0d{Bw\iCQQx?= MXiyOFUxQDR5Nh?=
A498 NWGzR2RSSXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 MVy1NOKh|ryP NYTqdWgxOjRiaB?= MnK1dI91\W62aXH0[ZPDqHSqZTDwdo8u[XCxcITveIlkKGWoZnXjeJMhd2ZiTlO= M{Xkd|I1PTB6NEe2
NHBE MlnHSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NHnqWWUzNzJyIN88US=> M{e3O|IhcA>? NV72dmM6[XS2ZX71ZZRmeyCLTD2zN{B{fGmvdXzheIVlKEO[Q1y4M2lNNThic3XjdoV1cW:w NHv6NlIzPDR5OUWyOi=>
A375 MlTYR4VtdCCLbo\hd4lwdiCDc4PhfS=> MV2xNQKBmzJyINM1US=> NF;JenozPCCq NX7LfZZVemWmdXPld{Bu\Wyjbn;tZUBk\WyuIHnueoF{cW:w NHzmZ|IzPDR4NkCzOi=>
HBMEC NUmzRoJVTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= M3S1T|ExKM7:TR?= NYDCNnU{OSCq NXjVN3B[[myxY3vzJHZGT0ZvaX7keYNm\CCHcHjBNkBmgHC{ZYPzbY9v MV2yOFQ2QDl6Mh?=
HPAEpiCs  M33W[mZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NHvDXGI{OCEQvF2= MmfrNUBp M2nLZYlvcGmkaYTzJHRPTi4QsTDzeIlufWyjdHXkJJA1Oi:yNESgUWFRUyCyaH;zdIhwenmuYYTpc44> NWPCdIpFOjR2NEG4O|A>
BeWo MlHtSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MVKxNOKh|ryP NYHYVWpsOiCq NEK4bpdqdmirYnn0d{BGWktzL{K= MkOzNlQ1OzN6NE[=
PC3  NELGNWVCeG:ydH;zbZMhSXO|YYm= M1fteVUxKM7:TR?= MV6wMlUhcA>? MmfybY5pcWKrdIOgUWh[NTR2OT3pcoR2[2WmIHHwc5B1d3Orc9Mg NE[4eJYzPDR{NEi4PS=>
HGC-27 NULxTVQ4SXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 NV7uWY5rOSEEtV2= M3rNO|EhcA>? MmPxd5VxeHKnc4Pld{BTSURyMEGgdIx2eyCPSz2yNlA3NWmwZIXj[YQh[2WubDD2bYFjcWyrdImgcI9{ew>? NY\oXmhVOjR2MU[zOFk>
MCF-7 MW\GeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MkiwNVDDqM7:TR?= NIPRSoMyOC9|MDDtbY4> NH7yVW1z\WS3Y3XzJJRp\SCXVGCt[IVx\W6mZX70JGVTUyCyaH;zdIhwenmuYYTpc44> MkPWNlQ{QTB6MUm=
HUVECs NWj2cGNWTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NUnZcIlIOTEEoN88US=> MlS3NUBp M1LGeYlvcGmkaYTzJJRp\SCKRFygdoVlfWOnZDDDU3guOiCneIDy[ZN{cW:wIHHu[EBRT0lvMjDy[Yxm[XOn MUmyOFM5PTFyOR?=
HeLa MkjvSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NWCyVlgzPTBizszN Mm\uNE42KGh? M4LvS4Jtd2OtczDUVnguOSCwdXPs[YFzKG2rZ4LheIlwdiCjbnSgWHhPUVBiZH;3ck1z\We3bHH0bY9v MUiyOFM4Pjh{Nx?=
HL-60  MUfGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NHzEd3kyOC9{MDFOwG0> M1zwXVEhcA>? MYDpcohq[mm2czD0bIXDqE5wIHPobY5mdnOrc3X4eJJi[3UEoHnu[JVk\WRiZHnm[oVz\W62aXH0bY9vKGmwdH:g[5JidnWub3P5eIV{ NFvmcXQzPDN3N{CyNC=>
HL-60 NILw[GVHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NGjuXJEzKML3TR?= Mk\2NVYhcA>? NGrkNFVFVVOR NWOybmlucW6qaXLpeJMhfGinIHHzd49kcWG2aX;uJI9nKHCVNkKxJHJi\i1zIHHu[EBPTkGWY{OsJIFv\CC2aHWgVmEucW6mdXPl[EBxcG:|cHjvdplt[XSrb36gc4YhdnWlbHXhdkBPTkGWY{O= MX2yOFM{ODB4OB?=
HEK 293 NHrNVYJHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NFe0S3cyOCEQvF2= MWW1JIg> NIXIUWRFVVOR M{Dhc4lvcGmkaYTzJHdvfC2rbnT1Z4VlKM7{LXPheIVvcW5xVFPGOEBi[3Srdnn0fUBidmRiboXjcIVieiEQsj3jZZRmdmmwIHHjZ5VufWyjdHnvci=> MWOyOFMzPDN4Nh?=
HEK 293 NHPKbWdHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M17hTlExKM7:TR?= Ml;pOUBp NYPQeG0zTE2VTx?= NIr1[45{fXCycnXzd4V{KHSqZTDDVnQh[WO2aY\peJk> NHfiRWszPDN{NEO2Oi=>
SW480 NVrMfXFyTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NYr2UldPOTBizszN MW[yNEBp NXnIe3RwTE2VTx?= NVXlUYdYe3WycILld5NmeyC2aHWgR3JVKGGldHn2bZR6 MU[yOFMzPDN4Nh?=
HCSMCs M{nafGdzd3e2aDDJcohq[mm2aX;uJGF{e2G7 M1z6UFExKM7:TR?= MV2yOEBp NXf0dmdH[myxY3vzJGZCSlB2LXnu[JVk\WRiSFPBV21EKHC{b3zp[oVz[XSrb36= M3;HT|I1OzF{M{ix
PANC-1 NWrqOnNYTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= M1XVSlIxKM7:TR?= MXm0PEBp Mn36bY5pcWKrdIOgeIhmKGW6cILld5Nqd25ib3[g{rQ3TCCrbjDy[ZNxd26|ZTD0c{B1cGViUGDBVu61yqCjZ3;ubZN1yqB? NYTxOYxlOjR{OUSxN|M>
A549 NUPBR2o4TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MkjoN|Ah|ryP NYPU[FlpOC53IHi= MYDEUXNQ NYHVW|JvcW6qaXLpeJMhfGinIITodo9u[mmwLXnu[JVk\WRiSVytPE9EYEOOOD3MeYMh[WO2aY\peJk> M4rQ[lI1Ojd5Nkm2
A549 MmD3SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? M4nkS|MxKM7:TR?= M1TFeFAvPSCq MWjEUXNQ M1HjZYlvcGmkaYTzJJRpem:vYnnuMYlv\HWlZXSgR{9GSlEQsjDUbJIzOzYEoIDoc5NxcG:{eXzheIlwdg>? NGH6cpIzPDJ5N{[5Oi=>
MC-3 Mn7iRZBweHSxc3nzJGF{e2G7 NXfzcYJwOTBizszN Mni5NlQhcA>? NYHX[lBDeG:2ZX70bYF1\WRiTVXTR{1qdmS3Y3XkJIFxd3C2b4Ppd{BqdiBiY3XscJM> NF\RVlgzPDJ5MEWyNy=>
Raji  NY\FO5hOTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NI\aSWkyOCEQvF2= NFzzPHMyKGh? MkD2Zoxw[2u|IHjzRmFHTiCrbnT1Z4VlKEW{a{GvNkBxcG:|cHjvdplt[XSrb36= MofYNlQzPjl4M{C=
Raji  MnHaS5Jwf3SqIFnubIljcXSrb36gRZN{[Xl? Mn7SNVAh|ryP M1vsflEhcA>? NUTYdYs6cW6qaXLpeJMhfGinIHLhd4FtKG:{IHjzRmFHTi2|dHnteYxifGWmIHPlcIwheHKxbHnm[ZJifGmxbjDhcoQhfmmjYnnsbZR6 MX:yOFI3QTZ|MB?=
HT29 MoizSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? M3nCTlExKM7:TR?= NVnydHFYOiCq NXS1SJE{cW6qaXLpeJMhd2ZiSlHLNkwhTVKNMT:yJIFv\CCVVFHUN{BxcG:|cHjvdplt[XSrb36= MmXWNlQzPjV{OUO=
HepG2 MVrBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? MYeyNEDPxE1? NULNUYwxOjRiaB?= NXmz[W9XcW6qaXLpeJMhTVKNMT:yJJBpd3OyaH;yfYxifGmxbjDhcoQh\W6qYX7j[ZMhXkJzLXnu[JVk\WRiYYDvdJRwe2m| NE\oN5UzPDJ2N{mwPS=>
HepG2 NGDGcnJHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MoXkNlAh|ryP NFj4OGozKGh? M{iwWIVvcGGwY3XzJHZDOS2rbnT1Z4VlKE[RWF:zZUB1emGwc3PybZB1cW:wYXygZYN1cX[rdIm= NHrOWFMzPDJ2N{mwPS=>
TE4 NUD4fnZITnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= M3TufFIxNzVyL{GwNEDPxE1? NIXXN5A1QCCq M{LDRmROW09? MYDpcohq[mm2czDwMWVzcyCjbnSge49zfG2jbn7pckBld3ewcnXneYxifGWmIICtRYt1KGmwIHGg[I9{\S2mZYDlcoRmdnRibXHucoVz MV6yOFI1PDB{Mx?=
TE1 MkTPSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MY[yNE82OC9zMECg{txO MVG0PEBp MWDEUXNQ M1rFO4lvcGmkaYTzJJAuTXKtIHHu[EB4d3K2bXHucolvKGSxd37y[Yd2dGG2ZXSgdE1Cc3RiaX6gZUBld3OnLXTldIVv\GWwdDDtZY5v\XJ? MXyyOFI1PDB{Mx?=
KYSE30 MorsSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NFLyRW4zOC93MD:xNFAh|ryP NH\hRYc1QCCq M1zoeWROW09? M1HZ[IlvcGmkaYTzJJAuTXKtIHHu[EB4d3K2bXHucolvKGSxd37y[Yd2dGG2ZXSgdE1Cc3RiaX6gZUBld3OnLXTldIVv\GWwdDDtZY5v\XJ? M2ruXlI1OjR2MEKz
TE1 M3ix[WZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NX\ZWo57PTBizszN MYi0PEBp MY\EUXNQ MX71dJJm\3WuYYTld{B1cGViZYjwdoV{e2mxbjDv[kBJVEFiY3zhd5MhUQ>? MXmyOFI1PDB{Mx?=
TE3 MnPDSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MVu1NEDPxE1? NEfNfXY1QCCq NW\2WZBbTE2VTx?= MV;1dJJm\3WuYYTld{B1cGViZYjwdoV{e2mxbjDv[kBJVEFiY3zhd5MhUQ>? M2DRU|I1OjR2MEKz
TE4 NYDlcIdYTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MkLuOVAh|ryP NUP4[|V2PDhiaB?= M1TCSGROW09? MorheZBz\We3bHH0[ZMhfGinIHX4dJJme3Orb36gc4YhUEyDIHPsZZN{KEl? NYXpc3dNOjR{NESwNlM>
TE5 Ml7aSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? Mmm0OVAh|ryP MnOyOFghcA>? Ml\zSG1UVw>? NETndZN2eHKnZ4XsZZRmeyC2aHWg[ZhxemW|c3nvckBw\iCKTFGgZ4xie3NiSR?= NHv0b2wzPDJ2NECyNy=>
KYSE30 NWruXI53TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MV21NEDPxE1? NX7ySZBTPDhiaB?= MkLHSG1UVw>? MVH1dJJm\3WuYYTld{B1cGViZYjwdoV{e2mxbjDv[kBJVEFiY3zhd5MhUQ>? MYmyOFI1PDB{Mx?=
MKN7 MYnGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NVrO[mJUPTBizszN MVm0PEBp NH\JNJpFVVOR NXHlVokycW6lcnXhd4V{KGW6cILld5Nqd25ib3[gTGxCNUFyMjDvdkBJVEFvQUK0JI1wdGWldXzldy=> MXmyOFI1PDB{Mx?=
OE19 NVi1OWhQTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MUK1NEDPxE1? M33MflQ5KGh? NWXpc3BxTE2VTx?= NFXJOJpqdmO{ZXHz[ZMh\XiycnXzd4lwdiCxZjDIUGEuSTB{IH;yJGhNSS2DMkSgcY9t\WO3bHXz NFrTXXkzPDJ2NECyNy=>
KATOIII  MlH1SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NWnwfHE1PTBizszN NHz1eow1QCCq M2jvUmROW09? MmL6bY5kemWjc3XzJIV5eHKnc4Ppc44hd2ZiSFzBMWExOiCxcjDIUGEuSTJ2IH3vcIVkfWyncx?= NGf2W28zPDJ2NECyNy=>
NCI-N87  NETZUVRHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M4P5OFUxKM7:TR?= MXi0PEBp MYfEUXNQ NG\EdmpqdmO{ZXHz[ZMh\XiycnXzd4lwdiCxZjDIUGEuSTB{IH;yJGhNSS2DMkSgcY9t\WO3bHXz M3LxPVI1OjR2MEKz
NUGC3 MmroSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MVy1NEDPxE1? MmrYOFghcA>? NIDQdVdFVVOR MnzWbY5kemWjc3XzJIV5eHKnc4Ppc44hd2ZiSFzBMWExOiCxcjDIUGEuSTJ2IH3vcIVkfWyncx?= Mm\5NlQzPDRyMkO=
NUGC2 MlviSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MWq1NEDPxE1? MXS0PEBp MkD5SG1UVw>? M3TCUolv[3KnYYPld{BmgHC{ZYPzbY9vKG:oIFjMRU1CODJib4KgTGxCNUF{NDDtc4xm[3WuZYO= NXe0VIVXOjR{NESwNlM>
SGC-7901  MlTIRZBweHSxc3nzJGF{e2G7 NFHrd4QzOCEQvF2= M{XvcFI1KGh? MYfpcohq[mm2czDDVE1u\WSrYYTl[EBieG:ydH;zbZM> NITIb2UzPDJ2MUO1NS=>
MG-63 NYXJS29jTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NHznUWszOCEQvF2= M1yxbFAvPSCq NIPuR2ZjdG:la4OgeIhmKEOKLXnu[JVk\WRicHjvd5Bpd3K7bHH0[YQhTUyNMTDwdo91\WmwIHX4dJJme3Orb36= Mof4NlQzOzl4NEC=
ARPE-19 MYPGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MYKyNEDPxE1? NITtc3cxNjViaB?= MVHpcohq[mm2czDBdIVtcW5vaX7keYNm\CCyaH;zdIhwenmuYYTpc44hd2ZiRYLrJIFv\CCDa4S= NYjCcY9COjR{Mke5NVg>
CRL-2302 NYXoSGh6TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= M365ZlIxKM7:TR?= NWnLNGQzOC53IHi= NGCzN3FqdmirYnn0d{BCeGWuaX6tbY5lfWOnZDDwbI9{eGixconsZZRqd25ib3[gSZJsKGGwZDDBb5Q> NHHlZ48zPDJ{N{mxPC=>
MCF-7 NWHqWVNjTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NWrkV|UzOjBizszN MUCxJIg> NV7EcpFs[WKxbHnzbIV{KGW6cILld5Nqd25ib3[gdIhwe3Cqb4L5cIF1\WRiRWLLJINwNXS{ZXH0cYVvfCC5aYToJINwdmq3Z3H0[S=> M1rOV|I1OjF4Mki5
MCF-7 MYHBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? MlzSNlAh|ryP NIKzbJIyKGh? NUf2bphDcW6lcnXhd4V{KGOjc4Dhd4UuQSCnbor5cYUh[WO2aY\peJk> MXGyOFIyPjJ6OR?=
DLD-1  MonESpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NYD0NI9XOjEEoN88US=> MX60PEBp NYjPPJE4emWmdXPld{B1cGViQl7JVFMh\XiycnXzd4lwdiCycnWteJJm[XSnZDD3bZRpKDVvYYrhMYRE M1fJdFI1OjFzNUix
HT-29 M4\qe2Z2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MofjNlDDqM7:TR?= MWO0PEBp MnjZdoVlfWOnczD0bIUhSk6LUEOg[ZhxemW|c3nvckBxemVvdILlZZRm\CC5aYToJFUu[XqjLXTD M4fOUFI1OjFzNUix
7402 NVPDbotJSXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 NX7ORnllOzBizszN M3PxdFUh\A>? NUHzVlB6\GWlcnXhd4V{KGOnbHygdJJwdGmoZYLheIlwdg>? MnrkNlQzOTF{NUO=
7721 MY\BdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? M1j5VVMxKM7:TR?= NYXXUoUyPSCm M3vPZYRm[3KnYYPld{Bk\WyuIIDyc4xq\mW{YYTpc44> Mme2NlQzOTF{NUO=
SGC7901  M174S2Fxd3C2b4Ppd{BCe3OjeR?= MYO1NOKh|ryP MX[yOE81QC95MjDo NGXXOlJFVVOR M2nMUIlv\HWlZYOgZZBweHSxc3nzJINwdWKrbnXkJJdqfGhiSlHLNkB{cFKQQR?= NWPGeXgxOjRzN{iyOFA>
SMMC7721 NVv6ZnV3TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NYjEd|JYOjVxNUCg{txO M{Ppb|I1KGh? M{HoWZN2eHC{ZYPz[ZMhfGinIHX4dJJme3Orb36gc4YheC2Da4Sgc5IheC2HUluxM|LDqA>? Ml7NNlQyPjhyNU[=
MCF-7 M{Kzbmdzd3e2aDDJcohq[mm2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NXnJfHFGOTBizszN MV:0PIg> NGLzSYJFVVOR MnPvdoV3\XK|ZYOgRm5HNWmwZIXj[YQh[2WubDDjfYNt\SCjcoLld5Q> MWqyOFE3OzRyNB?=
Caco-2 NWPqdopPTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= M1\pSlUxyqEQvF2= NXm4U3BRPDiq NHva[W5FVVOR MnvS[Y5p[W6lZYOgeIhmKG2UTlGgcIV3\Wy|IH;mxsBUS06QMVGsSnh[TDNuwrDMR3QtyqCOT2isxsBJUUZ|QT|CpHpIOTZuwrDQSGU3ScLiYX7kxsBNT0GOU{G2xsBo\W6nc9MgZ48ufHKnYYTl[EB4cXSqIFTlfC=> NWK5eopMOjRzNkG2PVU>
HAECs M33LZWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NHnsU4oyOCEQvF2= M2LyO|EhcA>? M4[zZ:Kh[XS2ZX71ZZRmeyCWTl[t{tEue3SrbYXsZZRm\CCLQ1HNMVEh[W6mIG\DRW0uOSCneIDy[ZN{cW:w MmG1NlQyOzR4NUe=
Ca9-22 Ml;ESpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MWSzJO69VQ>? M372flEhcA>? MXnhZo9tcXOqZYOgeIhmKGGkaXzpeJkhd2ZiSHLSJJRwKGmwZIXj[UBKVC16IIDyc4R2[3Srb36= MUSyOFEzPjV|Mh?=
Ca9-22 NVjOWGU3TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MYmzJO69VQ>? NGi5cYsyNzJiaB?= MXzy[YR2[2W|IFjiVk1qdmS3Y3XkJGFVTi1{IIDoc5NxcG:{eXzheIlwdg>? M1TzeFI1OTJ4NUOy
AGS MmK4SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MXqxNEDPxE4EoB?= Ml[wNE42KGh? NV\CVnRmcW6qaXLpeJMhfGinIIXwdoVofWyjdHnvckBw\iC2aHWgTWwuQCCpZX7l NH3zSm4zPDFyNkG2Oi=>
Caco-2  NVXWXJhiSXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 M4Gw[lExyqEQvF2= MWiyOOKhcA>? MVrk[YNz\WG|ZYOgZ4VtdCCjcH;weI9{cXNiaX7keYNm\CCkeTC1MWZW M2XTZVI1ODl3OE[z
HCT-8 M2fqemFxd3C2b4Ppd{BCe3OjeR?= Mn7RNVDDqM7:TR?= NF3HfGozPMLiaB?= NHj2WnBl\WO{ZXHz[ZMh[2WubDDhdI9xfG:|aYOgbY5lfWOnZDDifUA2NU[X MVGyOFA6PTh4Mx?=
A549 NXu2PIdwTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MmDQOVDDqM7:TR?= NV:z[4l1OiCq M135V4Jtd2OtczDFVmsheGixc4Doc5J6dGG2aX;uJI1m\GmjdHXkJIJ6KDFuMj3OVS=> NVfyPIM1OjRyNke3Nlc>
HPMC M2ixSGZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 Moj0NVDDqM7:TR?= MVW0PEBp MUny[ZZmenOnczD0bIUh[2ijbnfld{BqdiClZXzsJI1wenCqb3zv[5khcW6mdXPl[EBjgSCKR2DEVy=> NGT2SnYzPDB2MkizPC=>
HPMC M{nzTGFxd3C2b4Ppd{BCe3OjeR?= NYLidoNwOTEEoN88US=> MWKyOOKhcA>? NFzURYdz\X[ncoPld{Bl\WO{ZXHz[UBqdiClZXzsJJZq[WKrbHn0fUBqdmS3Y3XkJIJ6KEiJUFTT NUe2Rpd{OjRyNEK4N|g>
MGC803  M3LYUmFxd3C2b4Ppd{BCe3OjeR?= NXTuOmxROjEEoN88US=> MUexJIg> NFiwXI1qdmirYnn0d{BieG:ydH;zbZMhcW6mdXPl[EBjgSCLRl6t{tHDqGGwZDC15qCzNUSIVWK= MnWzNlQxOjd5NUC=
SGC7901 MoTrRZBweHSxc3nzJGF{e2G7 MVeyNOKh|ryP NWDLSphUOSCq M1PKbYlvcGmkaYTzJIFxd3C2b4Ppd{BqdmS3Y3XkJIJ6KEmITj5OteKh[W6mIEZihNIuTE[XUh?= NF;xZ5IzPDB{N{e1NC=>
COLO205 NX7CV49zSXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 NHfzNmsyOC9{MD:0NEDPxE1? M3\RSFI1KGh? NF;yOodqdmS3Y3XzJGRPSSCuYXTk[ZIh\m:{bXH0bY9v M1POO|I1ODF7MUC4
G292  MVHBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? Mor2N|DDqM7:TR?= MU[yJIg> M3T0Z5Jme3SxcnXzJINieHOjaXPpck1qdmS3Y3XkJINmdGxiZHXheIg> NVzX[mhGOjRyMUK5N|A>
BxPC-3 MXHGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NWjUbGp[OTBizszNxsA> MYe2JIg> MY\pcoNz\WG|ZTDtbXIuOTR|IHX4dJJme3Orb36= Mk\FNlM6PzN5MUC=
HPAF-II MW\GeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MkP2NVAh|ryPwrC= NGCwUpc3KGh? M1fnbYlv[3KnYYPlJI1qWi1zNEOg[ZhxemW|c3nvci=> M2nYU|I{QTd|N{Gw
HL-60 NEC3bo9CeG:ydH;zbZMhSXO|YYm= NWHwZ4MxPTEEoN88US=> MVSxJIg> MkT3doV{[3WnczDCRVE1PSCvZXTpZZRm\CCjcH;weI9{cXN? NG[yUoIzOzl2OEe1NS=>
HepG2 MY\GeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NIK0e4o1OCEQvF2= MkHpOk8yOiCq NH63Z3JqdmirYnn0d{B1cGViaX7jdoVie2Vib3[gdE1GWktzIHHu[EBxNWNvSoXuJJBzd3SnaX6g[ZhxemW|c3nvckBjgSCSTB?= MUmyN|k1Ojh3MR?=
HUVECs Ml;BSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? M1T1VlI2KM7:TR?= MVyxJIg> NYjNXlc5cW6lcnXhd4UhVkZvzsrCJJA3PSCwdXPs[YFzKHS{YX7zcI9k[XSrb36= MkLUNlM6ODFyMEi=
LNCaP  NIS1XmJHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NIm1b4IyOCEQvF5CpC=> NEXMUJIyKGh? NITzUGpl\WO{ZXHz[ZMhfGinIFXHSkB2eHKnZ4XsZZRm\CCyLWnCMVE> MYKyN|g{QDNzOB?=
HL60  M{DzcmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 Mk\kNlDDqM7:TR?= MYK3NkBp NFXYOmRFVVOR NXLCXmFbcW6qaXLpeJMh\GG|YYTpcoljNWmwZIXj[YQhS0RzMXKg[ZhxemW|c3nvci=> NYPSOHBsOjN6MkW1PFU>
NB4  NUjOTIhnTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MYixNEDPxE4EoB?= MUK3NkBp MVLEUXNQ M134TIlvcGmkaYTzJIRie2G2aX7pZk1qdmS3Y3XkJGNFOTGkIHX4dJJme3Orb36= NXLIVo5xOjN6MkW1PFU>
EPOR/CR3 MYLGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NYP5[FN2PTEEoN88US=> MVWzJIg> MlrydoVlfWOnczDFVG8h[W6mL3;yJGlNNTNvaX7keYNm\CC2aHWgeJlzd3OrbnWgdIhwe3Cqb4L5cIF1cW:wwrC= MUGyN|gzODd|MR?=
HUASMCs M3PMcGZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MX6xNEDPxE4EoB?= M1vkXlI1KGh? MXrkbY1qdmm|aHXzJGFv\yCLST3jZZV{\WRiU1;DV|MhdVKQQTDhcoQheHKxdHXpckBmgHC{ZYPzbY9vyqB? NUe2T5JGOjN6MU[0Olg>
HUASMCs MnTSSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? M3rjflExKM7:TdMg NHvtVpUzPCCq MVrpcohq[mm2czDBcochUUlvaX7keYNm\CCHUluxM|IheGixc4Doc5J6dGG2aX;uJIxmfmWu M4LqUVI{QDF4NE[4
SGC7901 M3LWNGZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NF\kPYUyOCEQvF5CpC=> NGGwTFYzPCCq MlX4bY5pcWKrdIOgeIhmKGW6cILld5Nqd25ib3[gdIhwe3Cqb4L5cIF1\WRiRWLLNU8z NWfoWpNwOjN5OUK1PFg>
MKN45 MVvGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NFrtXIIyOCEQvF5CpC=> NHzSTpQzPCCq NETCRmhqdmirYnn0d{B1cGViZYjwdoV{e2mxbjDv[kBxcG:|cHjvdplt[XSnZDDFVmsyNzJ? M4Pu[lI{Pzl{NUi4
SGC7901 NGnz[G9Iem:5dHigTY5pcWKrdHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NXr4PZhLOTBizszNxsA> MlrwNlQwPDhxN{KgbC=> M2flSYlvcGmkaYTzJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGOxLYTy[YF1\WRid3n0bEBFSVCW NFvoTpEzOzd7MkW4PC=>
MKN45 MYfHdo94fGhiSX7obYJqfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MVixNEDPxE4EoB?= NWTaPWszOjRxNEivO|IhcA>? MnztbY5pcWKrdIOgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIgh[29vdILlZZRm\CC5aYToJGRCWFR? NVz5O45vOjN5OUK1PFg>
SGC7901 MYLBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? Mm[2NVAh|ryPwrC= MXyyOEBp M1O0NYlv[3KnYYPld{B1cGViRFHQWE1qdmS3Y3XkJINmdGxiYYDvdJRwe2m| M2Wyc|I{Pzl{NUi4
MKN45 M1HIXWFxd3C2b4Ppd{BCe3OjeR?= NYO5emhIOTBizszNxsA> MU[yOEBp M3zrb4lv[3KnYYPld{B1cGViRFHQWE1qdmS3Y3XkJINmdGxiYYDvdJRwe2m| Mnv2NlM4QTJ3OEi=
BxPC-3 cells NFH0W|RIem:5dHigTY5pcWKrdHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MnrYNlDDqM7:TR?= M{\TOFAvPSCq MUDpcohq[mm2czDWSWdHNUFvcnXneYxifGWmIFjVWmVEKGe{b4f0bEBidmRidIXi[UBnd3KvYYTpc44hcW6mdXPl[EBjgSCSQWKtNkBCWA>? NXO1fYk4OjN5NkSwOFY>
NB4  NYDXTFBCSXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 NEDSV3MyOC9{MD:2NEDPxE1? MXqxMlUhcA>? NGS1[lZFVVOR NGXISmpl\WO{ZXHz[ZMh[2WubDD2bYFjcWyrdImgZ48ufHKnYYTl[EB4cXSqIGDhZ4xqfGG6ZXy= NWq0bIdZOjN5M{W1OFE>
HepG2  M2C2[2Z2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 M{\rRVIxyqEQvF2= NFPuZZAzPCCq NEnXOWpqdmirYnn0d{B1cGViSF:tNUBxem:2ZXnuJIV5eHKnc4Ppc44h[29vdILlZZRm\CC5aYToJI1mfG[xcn3pci=> NHnwdXozOzdyN{[wPS=>
HUVECs NXuw[4JGSXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 NHTpe5EzNzRizszN Mle3NlQwPDhiaB?= NW\6UnhtcW6mdXPld{Bk\WyuIHTlZZRp M{[yZlI{PzB5NUKw
KG-1  MWnBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? MkjzNlDDqM7:TR?= NHLQVZQyOiCq MWLlcohidmOnczDj[YxtKGGyb4D0c5NqeyCrbnT1Z4VlKGK7IGOx Ml3pNlM4ODZ4OUG=
AML 1# NGjiWJlCeG:ydH;zbZMhSXO|YYm= M{XnRVIxyqEQvF2= NHu1PXcyOiCq NIrZT25mdmijbnPld{Bk\WyuIHHwc5B1d3OrczDpcoR2[2WmIHL5JHMy M4nMcFI{PzB4Nkmx
A2780  MV;GeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NEi4XmIzOMLizszN M1\NNFEhcA>? NGX5cWljdG:la4OgSHRETC2rbnT1Z4VlKESUNTDlfJBz\XO|aX;u NVPGOmpuOjN4OU[4OlI>

... Click to View More Cell Line Experimental Data

In vivo Treatment of mice 30 minutes before focal cerebral ischemia with PD98059 protects against damage, resulting in a decrease in infarct volume. [5] Pretreated with PD98059 (10 mg/kg per i.v. injection) 30 minutes before and then together with hourly cerulein injections for 3 hours significantly ameliorates cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis ipancreatitis on the basis of pancreatic wet weight and histology. [6] Administration of PD98059 (10 mg/kg) in mice 1 hour after carrageenan causes a reduction in all the parameters of inflammation measured. [7]

Protocol

Kinase Assay
+ Expand

In vitro MEK-inhibitory activity:

Incorporation of 32P into myelin basic protein (MBP) is assayed in the presence of glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins containing the 44-kDa MAPK (GST-MAPK) or the 45-kDa MEK (GST-MEK1). Assays are conducted in 50 μL of 50 mM Tris, pH 7.4/10 mM MgCl2/2 mM EGTA/10 μM [γ-32P]ATP containing 10 μg of GST-MEK1, 0.5 μg of GST-MAPK, and 40 μg of MBP. After incubation at 30°C for 15 minutes, reactions are stopped by addition of Laemmli SDS sample buffer. Phosphorylated MBP is resolved by SDS/10% PAGE.
Cell Research
+ Expand
  • Cell lines: K-Balb, KNRK, v-raf-3Y1, SRA/3Y1, EGFR/3T3, and K562
  • Concentrations: Dissolved in DMSO, final concentrations ~100 μM
  • Incubation Time: 3 dyas, or 7-10 days
  • Method:

    For monolayer growth, cells are plated into multi-well plates at 10,000-20,000/mL. Forty-eight hours later, various concentrations of PD98059 are added to the cell growth medium and incubation is continued for an additional 3 days. Cells are then removed from the wells by incubation with trypsin and enumerated with a Coulter Counter. For growth in soft agar, cells are seeded into 35-mm dishes at 5,000-10,000 cells per dish with growth medium containing 0.3% agar and desired concentrations of PD98059. After 7-10 days of growth, visible colonies are manually enumerated with the aid of a dissecting microscope.


    (Only for Reference)
Animal Research
+ Expand
  • Animal Models: Male Sprague–Dawley rats with acute pancreatitis
  • Formulation: Dissolved in DMSO, and diluted in saline
  • Dosages: 10 mg/kg
  • Administration: Injection i.v.
    (Only for Reference)

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro DMSO 14 mg/mL (52.37 mM) warming
Water <1 mg/mL
Ethanol <1 mg/mL
In vivo 4% DMSO+30% PEG 300+5% Tween 80+ddH2O 1mg/mL

* 1 mg/ml means slightly soluble or insoluble.
* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 267.28
Formula

C16H13NO3

CAS No. 167869-21-8
Storage powder
in solvent
Synonyms N/A

Bio Calculators

Molarity Calculator

Molarity Calculator

Calculate the mass, volume or concentration required for a solution. The Selleck molarity calculator is based on the following equation:

Mass (g) = Concentration (mol/L) × Volume (L) × Molecular Weight (g/mol)

  • Mass
    Concentration
    Volume
    Molecular Weight

*When preparing stock solutions, please always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the via label and MSDS / COA (available on product pages).

Dilution Calculator

Dilution Calculator

Calculate the dilution required to prepare a stock solution. The Selleck dilution calculator is based on the following equation:

Concentration (start) x Volume (start) = Concentration (final) x Volume (final)

This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2 ( Input Output )

  • C1
    V1
    C2
    V2

* When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and MSDS / COA (available online).

The Serial Dilution Calculator Equation

  • Serial Dilutions

  • Computed Result

  • C1=C0/X C1: LOG(C1):
    C2=C1/X C2: LOG(C2):
    C3=C2/X C3: LOG(C3):
    C4=C3/X C4: LOG(C4):
    C5=C4/X C5: LOG(C5):
    C6=C5/X C6: LOG(C6):
    C7=C6/X C7: LOG(C7):
    C8=C7/X C8: LOG(C8):
Molecular Weight Calculator

Molecular Weight Calculator

Enter the chemical formula of a compound to calculate its molar mass and elemental composition:

Total Molecular Weight: g/mol

Tip: Chemical formula is case sensitive. C10H16N2O2 c10h16n2o2

Instructions to calculate molar mass (molecular weight) of a chemical compound:

To calculate molar mass of a chemical compound, please enter its chemical formula and click 'Calculate'.

Definitions of molecular mass, molecular weight, molar mass and molar weight:

Molecular mass (molecular weight) is the mass of one molecule of a substance and is expressed in the unified atomic mass units (u). (1 u is equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12)
Molar mass (molar weight) is the mass of one mole of a substance and is expressed in g/mol.

Molarity Calculator

Mass Concentration Volume Molecular Weight

Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

Handling Instructions

Tel: +1-832-582-8158 Ext:3

If you have any other enquiries, please leave a message.

  • * Indicates a Required Field

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Question 1:

    How to formulate this inhibitor for i.p. injection?

  • Answer:

    You can prepare the stock by the vehicle 30% PEG400/0.5% Tween80/5% Propylene glycol, 0.5% CMC.

MEK Signaling Pathway Map

MEK Inhibitors with Unique Features

Related MEK Products

Tags: buy PD98059 | PD98059 supplier | purchase PD98059 | PD98059 cost | PD98059 manufacturer | order PD98059 | PD98059 distributor
×
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID