Metformin HCl

Catalog No.S1950

Metformin HCl  Chemical Structure

Molecular Weight(MW): 165.62

Metformin HCl decreases hyperglycemia in hepatocytes primarily by suppressing glucose production by the liver (hepatic gluconeogenesis).

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2 Customer Reviews

  • Cropped immunoblot analyses for downstream effector proteins of the MAPK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways for NRASQ61 mutant lung carcinoma and neuroblastoma cell lines. Dual pathway inhibition can be achieved by combining metformin and trametinib, as evidenced by the abolishment of p-ERK and p-S6.

    Oncotarget, 2015, 6(2): 969-78 . Metformin HCl purchased from Selleck.

    Metformin added to atorvastatin therapy has no additional lipid-lowering effect. At the beginning of the experiment, rabbits were fed a high-cholesterol diet. After 2 weeks, rabbits were randomly stratified into the normal sodium (Ctrl group), atorvastatin (AT group), metformin (MT group), or atorvastatin/metformin combination therapy (AT + MT group) for a period of 10 weeks. Lipid levels were measured at −2, 0, 2, 6, 10 weeks after drug administration. Time-dependent changes and their AUC values of serum TC levels (A,B) are presented. Data are mean ± SD, n = 7 for each group. *P < 0.05, compared with Ctrl group. AUC, area under the curve; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TC, total cholesterol.

    Sci Rep, 2017, 7(1):2169. Metformin HCl purchased from Selleck.

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Biological Activity

Description Metformin HCl decreases hyperglycemia in hepatocytes primarily by suppressing glucose production by the liver (hepatic gluconeogenesis).
AMPK [1]
In vitro

Metformin (500 μM) activates AMPK in hepatocytes, as a result, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity is reduced, fatty acid oxidation is induced, and expression of lipogenic enzymes is suppressed. Metformin (2 mM) activates muscle AMPK and promotes glucose uptake. Metformin (500 μM) or AICAR strongly suppresses SREBP-1 mRNA expression in rat hepatocytes. Metformin ameliorates hyperglycemia without stimulating insulin secretion, promoting weight gain, or causing hypoglycemia. Metformin has beneficial effects on circulating lipids linked to increased cardiovascular risk. Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production and increases skeletal myocyte glucose uptake. [1] Metformin requires LKB1 in the liver to lower blood glucose levels. [2] Metformin (2 mM) leads to a significant increase in the activity of both α1- and α2-containing complexes in muscle cells. Metformin (2 mM) also increases threonine 172 phosphorylation in muscle cells. [3]

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
human HepG2 cells Mk[2SpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MVOyOEBp MV3JcoNz\WG|ZTDpckBodHWlb4PlJINwdnO3bYD0bY9vKGmwIHnud5VtcW5vcnXzbZN1[W62IHj1cYFvKEincFeyJINmdGy|IHHmeIVzKDJ2IHjyd{whTUN3ME2wMlI4KM7:TT6= MYCyNVg2PjB2OB?=
human MDA-MB-231 cells M{LTVmZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MmDaNUB1dyB{MDDtUS=> NWL0flEyOjRiaB?= NFfCVYdCdnSrcILvcIln\XKjdHn2[UBi[3Srdnn0fUBi\2GrboP0JIh2dWGwIF3ERU1OSi1{M{GgZ4VtdHNiYYSgNUB1dyB{MDDtUUBi\nSncjCyOEBpenNiYomgUXRVKGG|c3H5Mi=> NEfNdFMzOjR3OUKwPC=>
human HepG2 cells MXLGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MXmxJI1O NUnNNYdiOjRiaB?= MYHS[YR2[3Srb36gc4Yh\2y3Y3;z[UBkd26|dX3weIlwdiCrbjDpcpN2dGmwLYLld4l{fGGwdDDoeY1idiCKZYDHNkBk\WyuczDheEAyKG2PIHHmeIVzKDJ2IHjyd{BjgSCpbIXjc5NmKG:6aXThd4UhdWW2aH;kJIlvKHC{ZYPlcoNmKG:oIEKyMlIhdU1ib3[g[4x2[2:|ZR?= NEj4eVgzOzB{NUK0OC=>
mouse 3T3L1 cells MVTGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M1q3RlEhdU1? MUnJcoR2[3Srb36gc4YhSU2SSzDwbI9{eGixconsZZRqd25iaX6gcY92e2ViM2SzUFEh[2WubIOgZZQhOSCvTTDifUBY\XO2ZYLuJIJtd3RiYX7hcJl{cXN? MUeyOVIyPjN5OR?=
human HepG2 cells M1y2dWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MoHhNUBuVQ>? NILjS2szPCCq M1XRWWFkfGm4YYTpc44hd2ZiQV3QT{BqdiCqdX3hckBJ\XCJMjDj[YxteyCjc4Pld5Nm\CCjczDy[YR2[3Srb36gc4Yh\2y3Y3;u[Y9o\W6nc3nzJIF1KDFibV2gZYZ1\XJiMkSgbJJ{KGK7IHXufplu[XSrYzDjc4xwemmvZYTybYMh[XO|YYm= NWHSW205OjZ2N{GwPVA>

... Click to View More Cell Line Experimental Data

In vivo Metformin (100 mg/ml, po) treatment produces significant decreases in hepatic expression of mRNAs for SREBP-1, FAS, and S14 in SD rats that are consistent with effects documented in cells. Metformin also decreases hepatic lipids in obese mice. [1] Metformin (250 mg/kg, i.p.) increases AMPK phosphorylation in livers of wild-type mice. Metformin (250 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment reduces blood glucose by more than 50% in the wild-type mice on a high-fat diet. Metformin (250 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment also loweres blood glucose in the ob/ob mice by 40%. [2]


Solubility (25°C)

In vitro Water 33 mg/mL warmed (199.25 mM)
DMSO Insoluble warmed
Ethanol Insoluble

* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 165.62


CAS No. 1115-70-4
Storage powder
in solvent
Synonyms N/A

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Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT02960659 Not yet recruiting Type 2 Diabetes National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)|National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) November 7, 2016 Phase 1
NCT03054519 Not yet recruiting Peripheral Artery Disease Northwestern University March 31, 2017 --
NCT02495103 Recruiting Renal Cell Carcinoma|Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer|Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma, Sporadic National Cancer Institute (NCI)|National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) June 30, 2015 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT02946996 Recruiting Prostate Cancer Medical University of South Carolina December 28, 2016 Phase 2
NCT02477969 Active, not recruiting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Jiangsu Hansoh Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. February 27, 2014 Phase 3
NCT01981525 Active, not recruiting Li-Fraumeni Syndrome National Cancer Institute (NCI)|National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) October 22, 2013 Phase 1

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Autophagy Signaling Pathway Map

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Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID