Raltegravir (MK-0518)

Raltegravir (MK-0518) is a potent integrase (IN) inhibitor for WT and S217Q PFV IN with IC50 of 90 nM and 40 nM, respectively.

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Raltegravir (MK-0518) Chemical Structure

Raltegravir (MK-0518) Chemical Structure
Molecular Weight: 444.42

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Quality Control & MSDS

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Product Description

Biological Activity

Description Raltegravir (MK-0518) is a potent integrase (IN) inhibitor for WT and S217Q PFV IN with IC50 of 90 nM and 40 nM, respectively.
Targets Integrase (S217Q PFV) [1] Integrase (WT PFV) [1]
IC50 40 nM 90 nM
In vitro PFV IN carrying the S217H substitution is 10-fold less susceptible to Raltegravir with IC50 of 900 nM. PFV IN displays 10% of WT activity and is inhibited by Raltegravir with an IC50 of 200 nM, indicating a ~twofold decrease in susceptibility to the IN strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) compared with WT IN. S217Q PFV IN is as sensitive to Raltegravir as the WT enzyme. [1] Raltegravir is metabolized by glucuronidation, not hepatically. Raltegravir has potent in vitro activity against HIV-1, with a 95% inhibitory concentration of 31?0 nM, in human T lymphoid cell cultures. Raltegravir is also active against HIV-2 when Raltegravir is tested in CEMx174 cells, with an IC95 of 6 nM. Raltegravir metabolism occurs primarily through glucuronidation. Drugs that are strong inducers of the glucuronidation enzyme, UGT1A1, significantly reduce Raltegravir concentrations and should not be used. Raltegravir exhibits weak inhibitory effects on hepatic cytochrome P450 activity. Raltegravir does not induce CYP3A4 RNA expression or CYP3A4-dependent testosterone 6-β-hydroxylase activity. [2] Raltegravir cellular permeativity is reduced in the presence of magnesium and calcium. [3] Raltegravir and related HIV-1 integrase (IN) strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs efficiently block viral replication. [4] In acutely infected human lymphoid CD4+ T-cell lines MT-4 and CEMx174, SIVmac251 replication is efficiently inhibited by Raltegravir, which shows an EC90 in the low nanomolar range. [5]
In vivo Raltegravir induces viro-immunological improvement of nonhuman primates with progressing SIVmac251 infection. One non-human primate shows an undetectable viral load following Raltegravir monotherapy. [5]
Features The 1st approved human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase inhibitor.

Protocol(Only for Reference)

Kinase Assay: [1]

PFV integration assay For quantitative strand transfer assays, donor DNA substrate is formed by annealing HPLC grade oligonucleotides 5′-GACTCACTATAGGGCACGCGTCAAAATTCCATGACA and 5′-ATTGTCATG GAATTTTGACGCGTGCCCTATAGTGAGTC. Reactions (40 μL) contains 0.75 μM PFV IN, 0.75 μM donor DNA, 4 nM (300 ng) supercoiled pGEM9-Zf(−) target DNA, 125 mM NaCl, 5 mM MgSO4, 4 μM ZnCl2, 10 mM DTT, 0.8% (vol/vol) DMSO, and 25 mM BisTris propane–HCl, pH 7.45. Raltegravir is added at indicated concentrations. Reactions are initiated by addition of 2 μL PFV IN diluted in 150 mM NaCl, 2 mM DTT, and 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, and stopped after 1 hour at 37 °C by addition of 25 mM EDTA and 0.5% (wt/vol) SDS. Reaction products, deproteinized by digestion with 20 μg proteinase K for 30 minutes at 37 °C followed by ethanol precipitation, are separated in 1.5% agarose gels and visualized by staining with ethidium bromide. Integration products are quantified by quantitative real-time PCR, using Platinum SYBR Green qPCR SuperMix and three primers: 5′-CTACTTACTCTAGCTTCCCGGCAAC, 5′-TTCGCCAGTTAATAGTTTGCGCAAC, and 5′-GACTCACTATAGGGCACGCGT. PCR reactions (20 μL) contained 0.5 μM of each primer and 1 μL diluted integration reaction product. Following a 5-min denaturation step at 95 °C, 35 cycles are carried out in a CFX96 PCR instrument, using 10 seconds denaturation at 95 °C, 30 seconds annealing at 56 °C and 1 minutes extension at 68 °C. Standard curves are generated using serial dilutions of WT PFV IN reaction in the absence of INSTI.

Cell Assay: [5]

Cell lines Human MT-4 cells
Concentrations 0.0001-1 μM
Incubation Time 5 days
Method Human MT-4 cells are infected for 2 hours with the SIVmac251, HIV-1 (IIIB) and HIV-2 (CDC 77618) stocks at a multiplicity of infection of, approximately, 0.1. Cells are then washed three times in phosphate buffered saline, and suspended at 5 × 105/mL in fresh culture medium (to primary cells 50 units/mL of IL-2 are added) in 96-well plates, in the presence or absence of a range of triplicate raltegravir concentrations (0.0001 μM -1 μM). Untreated infected and mock-infected controls are prepared too, in order to allow comparison of the data derived from the different treatments. Viral cytopathogeniciy in MT-4 cells is quantitated by the methyl tetrazolium (MTT) method (MT-4/MTT assay) when extensive cell death in control virus-infected cell cultures is detectable microscopically as lack of capacity to re-cluster. The capability of MT-4 cells to form clusters after infection. Briefly, clusters are disrupted by pipetting; and, after 2 hours of incubation at 37 °C, the formation of new clusters is assessed by light microscopy (100 × magnification). Cell culture supernatants are collected for HIV-1 p24 and HIV-2/SIVmac251 p27 core antigen measurement by ELISA. In CEMx174-infected cell cultures, which show a propensity to form syncytia induced by the virus envelope glycoproteins, syncytia are counted, in blinded fashion, by light microscopy for each well at 5 days following infection.

Animal Study: [5]

Animal Models Indian Rhesus macaques
Formulation
Dosages 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg
Administration Oral administration
Solubility 30% PEG400/0.5% Tween80/5% propylene glycol, , 30 mg/mL
* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Conversion of different model animals based on BSA (Value based on data from FDA Draft Guidelines)

SpeciesBaboonDogMonkeyRabbitGuinea pigRatHamsterMouse
Weight (kg)121031.80.40.150.080.02
Body Surface Area (m2)0.60.50.240.150.050.0250.020.007
Km factor202012128653
Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by  Animal B Km
Animal A Km
Example

For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.

Rat dose (mg/kg) = mouse dose (22.4 mg/kg) ×  mouse Km(3)  = 11.2 mg/kg
rat Km(6)
1

References

[1] Hare S, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010, 107(46), 20057-20062.

[2] Hicks C, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2009, 48(7), 931-939.

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Clinical Trial Information( data from http://clinicaltrials.gov, updated on 2014-08-23)

NCT Number Recruitment Conditions Sponsor
/Collaborators
Start Date Phases
NCT02150993 Not yet recruiting HIV-2 Infection French National Institute for Health and Medical Research-French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (Inserm-ANRS) September 2014 Phase 2|Phase 3
NCT02116660 Not yet recruiting HIV Infections Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. September 2014 Phase 2
NCT02212379 Not yet recruiting HIV-1 Infection French National Institute for Health and Medical Research-French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (Inserm-ANRS)|Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.|Janssen-Cilag Ltd. September 2014 Phase 2
NCT02218320 Not yet recruiting Human Immunodeficiency Virus University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill|Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. August 2014 Phase 4
NCT02219672 Recruiting AIDS/HIV PROBLEM Peking Union Medical College|Ministry of Science and Technology of the People´s Republic of China July 2014 Phase 3

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Chemical Information

Download Raltegravir (MK-0518) SDF
Molecular Weight (MW) 444.42
Formula

C20H21FN6O5

CAS No. 518048-05-0
Storage 3 years -20℃Powder
6 months-80℃in DMSO
Synonyms
Solubility (25°C) * In vitro DMSO 88 mg/mL (198 mM)
Water <1 mg/mL (<1 mM)
Ethanol <1 mg/mL (<1 mM)
In vivo 30% PEG400/0.5% Tween80/5% propylene glycol, 30 mg/mL
* <1 mg/ml means slightly soluble or insoluble.
* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.
Chemical Name N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-5-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-(2-(2-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-5-carboxamido)propan-2-yl)-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-4-carboxamide

Research Area

Customer Reviews (1)


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Rating
Source Vet Microbiol. 2011 Aug 26;152(1-2):165-8 . Raltegravir (MK-0518) purchased from Selleck
Method PCR
Cell Lines QN10, FEA and CrFK cells lines
Concentrations 0.196 nM to 3 uM
Incubation Time 7 d
Results Raltegravir effective 50% inhibitory concentrations (EC50) were of 7.6 nM in QN10, of 1.3 nM in FEA and of 2.2 nM in CrFK cells.

Product Citations (7)

Tech Support & FAQs

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