Successful Treatment of a Locally Recurrent and Metastatic Malignant Phyllodes Tumor with Accelerated Radiotherapy and Nab-Paclitaxel, Cisplatin, and Liposomal Doxorubicin Chemotherapy

Phyllodes tumors are rare breast lesions of fibroepithelial origin. Malignant transformation with metastases is linked with poor prognosis. We present a case of a 62-year-old woman with a recurrent malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast and lung metastases. The patient was originally presented with a borderline phyllodes tumor (7.4 cm) of the left breast, treated with wide local excision. A year later, the patient returned with palpable left breast masses. On PET-CT, increased uptake of 18F-FDG by large breast tumors was evident. A right lung lesion of metastatic origin was also present. A simple left breast mastectomy was performed. Histopathological report described 2 malignant phyllodes tumors (7 cm and 6.5 cm). One month later, during the CT simulation for radiotherapy planning, encysted fluid in the chest wall and 2 additional pulmonary lesions of the right lung were identified, confirming progressive lung metastatic disease. Both the chest wall and the regional lymph node area were irradiated with hypofractionated and accelerated radiotherapy. Biweekly chemotherapy with albumin-bound paclitaxel, cisplatin, and liposomal doxorubicin was also prescribed at the start of radiotherapy for 12 cycles. At the end of chemotherapy, complete regression of lung metastases was achieved, and there was no evidence of local recurrence. Within 2 years of follow-up, the patient is free of disease and treatment-related toxicities. Accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy is effective in the locoregional control of malignant phyllodes tumors. The combination of cisplatin with nab-paclitaxel and liposomal doxorubicin chemotherapy has acceptable toxicity and is highly effective in eradicating metastatic lesions.

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