Stability of Captisol-enabled versus propylene glycol-based melphalan at room temperature and after refrigeration

Disclaimer: In an effort to expedite the publication of articles related to the COVID-19 pandemic, AJHP is posting these manuscripts online as soon as possible after acceptance. Accepted manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and copyedited, but are posted online before technical formatting and author proofing. These manuscripts are not the final version of record and will be replaced with the final article (formatted per AJHP style and proofed by the authors) at a later time.

Purpose: To compare the chemical stability of Captisol-enabled (CE) melphalan ("CE-melphalan"; Evomela, Acrotech Biopharma LLC) and propylene glycol-(PG)-based melphalan ("PG-melphalan"; Alkeran, GlaxoSmithKline) admixtures prepared with 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags or reconstituted vials stored at room temperature (RT) and under refrigeration.

Methods: Lyophilized CE-melphalan and generic PG-melphalan were reconstituted to 5 mg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or manufacturer-supplied diluent, respectively. The reconstituted vials were then diluted to the desired concentrations with 0.9% sodium chloride injection in PVC bags and were stored at RT (23 °C) or under refrigeration (4 °C). Aliquots were withdrawn from the bags and reconstituted vials of CE-melphalan and PG-melphalan immediately after preparation and at predetermined time intervals. Melphalan concentrations were measured using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method.

Results: CE-melphalan reconstituted in PVC bags at concentrations of 1 and 2 mg/mL was stable for 6 and 24 hours, respectively, at RT and for 8 and 24 hours, respectively, at 4 °C. PG-melphalan reconstituted in bags at 1, 1.5, and 2 mg/mL was stable for 1, 2, and 2 hours, respectively, at RT and for 2, 4, and 4 hours, respectively, at 4 °C. Reconstituted CE-melphalan vials were stable for 48 hours at both RT and 4 °C, whereas PG-melphalan vials were stable for 6 hours at RT but formed precipitate within 2 hours at 4 °C.

Conclusion: CE-melphalan remained stable longer than generic PG-melphalan under the test conditions. CE-melphalan at 2 mg/mL has 24-hour stability at RT and can be used for extended infusion times or may be compounded ahead of time. Reconstituted CE-melphalan vials are stable for 48 hours at both RT and 4 °C.