Small molecule inhibitors provide insights into the relevance of LAT1 and LAT2 in materno-foetal amino acid transport

The placenta supplies the foetus with critical nutrients such as essential amino acids (AA, eg leucine) for development and growth. It also represents a cellular barrier which is formed by a polarized, differentiated syncytiotrophoblast (STB) monolayer. Active Na+ -independent leucine transport across the placenta is mainly attributed to the System L transporters LAT1/SLC7A5 and LAT2/SLC7A8. This study explored the influence of trophoblast differentiation on the activity of LAT1/LAT2 and the relevance of LAT1/LAT2 in leucine uptake and transfer in trophoblasts by applying specific small molecule inhibitors (JPH203/JG336/JX009). L-leucine uptake (total dose = 167 μmol/L) was sensitive to LAT1-specific inhibition by JPH203 (EC50 = 2.55 µmol/L). The inhibition efficiency of JPH203 was increased by an additional methoxy group in the JPH203-derivate JG336 (EC50 = 1.99 µmol/L). Interestingly, JX009 showed efficient System L inhibition (EC50 = 2.35 µmol/L) and was the most potent inhibitor of leucine uptake in trophoblasts. The application of JPH203 and JX009 in Transwell® -based leucine transfer revealed LAT1 as the major accumulative transporter at the apical membrane, but other System L transporters such as LAT2 as rate-limiting for leucine efflux across the basal membrane. Therefore, differential specificity of the applied inhibitors allowed for estimation of the contribution of LAT1 and LAT2 in materno-foetal AA transfer and their potential impact in pregnancy diseases associated with impaired foetal growth.

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S8667 JPH203 JPH203 (KYT-0353, JPH-203SBECD), a selective L-type amino acid transporter 1 inhibitor, shows a dramatic inhibition of leucine uptake (IC50=0.06 µM) and cell growth (IC50=4.1 µM) in human colon cancer cells (HT-29), human oral cancer cells (YD-38) and leukemic cells. (7)

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