RSL3 Drives Ferroptosis through NF- κ B Pathway Activation and GPX4 Depletion in Glioblastoma

Glioblastoma, the most aggressive form of malignant glioma, is very difficult to treat because of its aggressively invasive nature and high recurrence rates. RAS-selective lethal 3 (RSL3), a well-known inhibitor of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), could effectively induce oxidative cell death in glioblastoma cells through ferroptosis, and several signaling pathways are involved in this process. However, the role of the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway in glioblastoma cell ferroptosis has not yet been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the underlying mechanism of the NF-κB pathway in RSL3-induced ferroptosis in glioblastoma cells. We found that RSL3 led to an increase in lipid ROS concentration and downregulation of ferroptosis-related proteins such as GPX4, ATF4, and SLC7A11 (xCT) in glioblastoma cells. Additionally, the NF-κB pathway was activated by RSL3, and its inhibition by BAY 11-7082 could alleviate ferroptosis. The murine xenograft tumor model indicated that NF-κB pathway inhibition could mitigate the antitumor effects of RSL3 in vivo. Furthermore, we found that GPX4 knockdown could not effectively induce ferroptosis. However, NF-κB pathway activation coupled with GPX4 silencing induced ferroptosis. Additionally, ATF4 and xCT expression might be regulated by the NF-κB pathway. Collectively, our results revealed that the NF-κB pathway plays a novel role in RSL3-induced ferroptosis in glioblastoma cells and provides a new therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma treatment.

Related Products

Cat.No. Product Name Information
S2913 BAY 11-7082 BAY 11-7082 (BAY 11-7821) is a NF-κB inhibitor, inhibits TNFα-induced IκBα phosphorylation with IC50 of 10 μM in tumor cells. BAY 11-7082 inhibits ubiquitin-specific protease USP7 and USP21 with IC50 of 0.19 μM and 0.96 μM, respectively. BAY 11-7082 induces apoptosis and S phase arrest in gastric cancer cells.

Related Targets

Apoptosis related DUB IκB/IKK