Neurocytological Advances in the Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive neoplasm of the brain that has commonly led to disappointing patient outcomes. Despite medical advancements and increasing research efforts, GBM studies reveal a stagnant survival rate at the global level with only sluggish improvement over time. Modern neuro-oncology research places a heavy emphasis on pharmacological therapies. Through a broad database search, we accumulated and synthesized the GBM-related neuroimmunocytological literature to create a comprehensive and contemporary review. Based on our findings, we discuss the recent neurocytological treatment strategies for GMB and the results of the studies. Regorafenib, paxalisib, and dianhydrogalactitol (VAL-083) are showing initial promise to decrease disease progression. VAL-083 is an alkylating agent that creates N7 methylation on DNA and has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Selinexor, recombinant nonpathogenic polio-rhinovirus, and GBM-vaccine of autologous fibroblasts retrovirally transfected with TFG-IL4-Neo-TK vector have all also shown initial clinical benefit in terms of prolonging survival. Most trials observe modest improvement in outcomes with a positive safety profile. Nevertheless, the need for further studies is warranted, along with the trending of post-therapeutic biomarkers in order to better access future patient outcomes.

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