Mechanism of Ferroptosis and Its Role in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Ferroptosis is a novel form of nonapoptotic regulated cell death (RCD). It features iron-dependent lipid peroxide accumulation accompanied by inadequate redox enzymes, especially glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). RAS-selective lethal 3 (RSL3), erastin, and ferroptosis inducing 56 (FIN56) induce ferroptosis via different manners targeting GPX4 function. Acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family 4 (ACSL4), lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3), and lipoxygenases (LOXs) participate in the production of lipid peroxides. Heat shock protein family B member 1 (HSPB1) and nuclear receptor coactivator 4 (NCOA4) regulate iron homeostasis preventing ferroptosis caused by the high concentration of intracellular iron. Ferroptosis is ubiquitous in our body as it exists in both physiologic and pathogenic processes. It is involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) impairment and arsenic-induced pancreatic damage in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Moreover, iron and the iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster influence each other, causing mitochondrial iron accumulation, more reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, failure in biosynthesis of insulin, and ferroptosis in β-cells. In addition, ferroptosis also engages in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications such as myocardial ischemia and diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). In this review, we summarize the mechanism of ferroptosis and especially its association with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

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S7242 Erastin Erastin is a ferroptosis activator by acting on mitochondrial VDAC, exhibiting selectivity for tumor cells bearing oncogenic RAS. Solutions of Erastin are best fresh-prepared. (152) (11)

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