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Inhibition of PRMT5 Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Pyroptosis via Activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 Signal Pathway in a Mouse Model of Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

Background: Extensive evidence has demonstrated that oxidative stress, pyroptosis, and proinflammatory programmed cell death are related to renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be illustrated. Protein arginine methylation transferase 5 (PRMT5), which mediates arginine methylation involved in the regulation of epigenetics, exhibits a variety of biological functions and essential roles in diseases. The present study investigated the role of PRMT5 in oxidative stress and pyroptosis induced by I/R injury in a mouse model and in a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) model of HK-2 cells.

Methods: C57 mice were used as an animal model. All mice underwent right nephrectomy, and the left renal pedicles were either clamped or not. Renal I/R injury was induced by ligating the left renal pedicle for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. HK-2 cells were exposed to normal conditions or stimulation through H/R. EPZ015666(EPZ)-a selective potent chemical inhibitor-and small interfering RNA (siRNA) were administered to suppress the function and expression of PRMT5. The levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine in the serum and renal tissue injury were assessed. Immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate pyroptosis-related proteins including nod-like receptor protein-3, ASC, caspase-1, caspase-11, GSDMD-N, and interleukin-1β. Cell apoptosis and cell viability were detected through flow cytometry, and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were measured. Ki-67 was used to assess the proliferation of renal tubular epithelium. In addition, the activity of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase was determined.

Results: I/R or H/R induced an increase in the expression of PRMT5. Inhibition of PRMT5 by EPZ alleviated oxidative stress and I/R- or H/R-induced pyroptosis. In renal tissue, the application of EPZ promoted the proliferation of tubular epithelium. In addition, H/R-induced pyroptosis in HK-2 cells was dependent on oxidative stress in vitro. Administration of either EPZ or siRNA led to decreased expression of pyroptosis-related proteins. Inhibition of PRMT5 also attenuated the I/R- or H/R-induced oxidative stress in vivo and in HK-2 cells, respectively. It also resulted in a distinct decrease in the levels of malondialdehyde and H2O2, and an apparent increase in superoxide dismutase activity in mouse renal tissue. Moreover, it led to a significant decrease in the levels of ROS and H2O2 in HK-2 cells. When activated, NF-E2-related factor/heme oxygenase-1 (Nrf2/HO-1)-a key regulator of various cytoprotective proteins that withstand oxidative damage-can decrease the generation of ROS. Nrf2/HO-1 was downregulated during I/R in tissues and H/R in HK-2 cells, and this effect was reversed by the PRMT5 inhibitor. Furthermore, the expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 proteins were markedly upregulated by EPZ or siRNA against PRMT5.

Conclusion: PRMT5 is involved in ischemia- and hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and pyroptosis in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of PRMT5 may ameliorate renal I/R injury by suppressing oxidative stress and pyroptosis via the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, as well as promoting the proliferation of tubular epithelium. Therefore, PRMT5 may be a promising therapeutic target.

Related Products

Cat.No. Product Name Information Publications Customer Product Validation
S7748 EPZ015666 (GSK3235025) EPZ015666 (GSK3235025) is a potent, selective and orally bioavailable PRMT5 inhibitor with Ki of 5 nM, >20,000-fold selectivity over other PMTs. (14) (1)

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