Cases of ROS1-rearranged lung cancer: when to use crizotinib, entrectinib, lorlatinib, and beyond?

ROS1-rearranged (also known as ROS1 fusion-positive) non-small-cell lung cancer is an uncommon but distinct molecular subgroup seen in approximately 1-2% of cases. Oncogene addiction due to constitutive ROS1 tyrosine kinase activation has allowed development of molecularly targeted therapies with remarkable anti-tumor activity. Both crizotinib and entrectinib, multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have now received approval by the FDA for treatment of patients with advanced ROS1-rearranged lung cancers; however, the clinical efficacy and safety of these drugs have been derived from expansion cohorts of single-arm phase I or basket clinical trials with relatively small populations of this clinically and molecularly distinct subgroup. Both drugs lead to high objective response rates (approximately 70-80%) and have manageable side effects, although only entrectinib has potent intracranial efficacy. Lorlatinib is an oral brain-penetrant ALK/ROS1 TKI with activity in both TKI-naïve and some crizotinib-resistant settings (albeit with limited potency against the crizotinib/entrectinib-resistant ROS1-G2032R mutation). We describe cases of advanced ROS1-rearranged lung cancer receiving crizotinib, entrectinib, and/or lorlatinib in first and later line treatment settings to dissect the current state of evidence supporting management decisions for these patients. The next generation ROS1 TKIs (repotrectinib and DS-6051b), owing to their broad activity against kinase mutations including ROS1-G2032R in preclinical studies, hold promise to transform the current treatment paradigm and permit even further gains with regards to long-term outcomes in this subset of patients.

Related Products

Cat.No. Product Name Information
S8583 Repotrectinib (TPX-0005) Repotrectinib (TPX-0005) is a novel ALK/ROS1/TRK inhibitor with the IC50 values of 1.01 nM for WT ALK, 1.26 nM for ALK(G1202R), and 1.08 nM for ALK(L1196M); also a potent SRC inhibitor (IC50 5.3 nM).

Related Targets

ROS1 Src ALK Trk receptor