Aspiration Is Associated with Poor Treatment Response in Pediatric Pulmonary Vein Stenosis

Intraluminal pulmonary vein stenosis is a disease with significant morbidity and mortality, though recent progress has been made using multimodal therapy with antiproliferative agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between aspiration and poor treatment response in patients with intraluminal pulmonary vein stenosis. A retrospective, single-center cohort analysis was performed of patients treated with a combination of imatinib mesylate and multimodal anatomic relief between March 2009 and November 2019. Analysis focused on 2-ventricle patients due to small numbers and clinical heterogeneity of single ventricle patients. Among the 84 patients included, 15 had single ventricle physiology and 69 had 2-ventricle physiology. Among the 2-ventricle group, multivariable analysis revealed that patients with clinical aspiration had nearly five times higher odds of poor treatment response than patients without aspiration (OR 4.85, 95% CI [1.37, 17.2], p = 0.014). Furthermore, male patients had higher odds of poor treatment response than their female counterparts (OR 3.67, 95% CI [1.04, 12.9], p = 0.043). Aspiration is a novel, potentially modifiable risk factor for poor treatment response in pediatric multi-vessel intraluminal pulmonary vein stenosis in patients with 2-ventricle physiology.

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