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AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator A-769662 increases intracellular calcium and ATP release from astrocytes in an AMPK-independent manner

AIM:

To test the hypothesis that, given the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in regulating intracellular ATP levels, AMPK may alter ATP release from astrocytes, the main sources of extracellular ATP (eATP) within the brain.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Measurements of ATP release were made from human U373 astrocytoma cells, primary mouse hypothalamic (HTAS) and cortical astrocytes (CRTAS) and wild-type and AMPK α1/α2 null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Cells were treated with drugs known to modulate AMPK activity: A-769662, AICAR and metformin, for up to 3 hours. Intracellular calcium was measured using Fluo4 and Fura-2 calcium-sensitive fluorescent dyes.

RESULTS:

In U373 cells, A-769662 (100 μM) increased AMPK phosphorylation, whereas AICAR and metformin (1 mM) induced a modest increase or had no effect, respectively. Only A-769662 increased eATP levels, and this was partially blocked by AMPK inhibitor Compound C. A-769662-induced increases in eATP were preserved in AMPK α1/α2 null MEF cells. A-769662 increased intracellular calcium in U373, HTAS and CRTAS cells and chelation of intracellular calcium using BAPTA-AM reduced A-769662-induced eATP levels. A-769662 also increased ATP release from a number of other central and peripheral endocrine cell types.

CONCLUSIONS:

AMPK is required to maintain basal eATP levels but is not required for A-769662-induced increases in eATP. A-769662 (>50 μM) enhanced intracellular calcium levels leading to ATP release in an AMPK and purinergic receptor independent pathway.

Related Products

Cat.No. Product Name Information Publications Customer Product Validation
S2697 A-769662 A-769662 is a potent, reversible AMPK activator with EC50 of 0.8 μM in cell-free assays, little effect on GPPase/FBPase activity. (13) (4)

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