Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA)

Catalog No.S8615 Synonyms: bichloroacetic acid, BCA

Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) Chemical Structure

Molecular Weight(MW): 150.92

Dichloroacetate, a specific inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) with IC50 values of 183 and 80 μM for PDK2 and PDK4 respectively, has been shown to derepress a mitochondrial potassium-ion channel axis, trigger apoptosis in cancer cells, and inhibit tumor growth.

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Description Dichloroacetate, a specific inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) with IC50 values of 183 and 80 μM for PDK2 and PDK4 respectively, has been shown to derepress a mitochondrial potassium-ion channel axis, trigger apoptosis in cancer cells, and inhibit tumor growth.
In vitro

DCA can trigger apoptosis of human lung, breast and brain cancer cells[1]. After DCA treatment, cancer cells shows increased levels of ROS, depolarization of the MMP in vitro and increased apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo[2]. DCA inhibits the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), thereby stimulating the mitochondrial enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). When turned off, PDH no longer converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA required for mitochondrial respiration and glucose dependent oxidative phosphorylation. DCA thus shifts cellular metabolism from glycolysis to glucose oxidation, decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential gradient and helping to open mitochondrial transition pores. This metabolic switch facilitates translocation of pro-apoptotic mediators like cytochrome c (cyt c) and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), both of which stimulate apoptosis. DCA thereby drives cancer cells to commit suicide by apoptosis[3].

In vivo DCA can act as a cytostatic agent in vitro and in vivo, without causing apoptosis (programmed cell death). DCA is discovered to be a safe drug with no cardiac, pulmonary, renal or bone marrow toxicity. The most serious common side effect consists of peripheral neuropathy, which is reversible. DCA has anti-cancer activity in several cancer types including colon, prostate, ovarian, neuroblastoma, lung carcinoid, cervical, endometrial, cholangiocarcinoma, sarcoma and T-cell lymphoma. Other antineoplastic actions of DCA have also been suggested. These include angiogenesis blockade, changes in expression of HIF1-α, alteration of pH regulators V-ATPase and MCT1, and other cell survival regulators such as PUMA, GLUT1, Bcl2 and p53. DCA is able to significantly reduce metastatic burden in the lungs of rats in a highly metastatic in vivo model of breast cancer[1]. In vivo the DCA-Na treatment induces 20% survival and decreased the tumoral diameter, volume and weight, without affect the body weight and avoid metastasis in C57BL/6 mice[3].

Protocol

Cell Research:

[2]

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  • Cell lines: breast cancer cell
  • Concentrations: 5 mM
  • Incubation Time: 24-72 h
  • Method:

    For the assessment of cell viability, cells are plated in 96 well plates at a density of 3000 cells per well and 8 wells per group. Following exposure to DCA and ATO for 24 to 72 hours, cells are incubated for 3 hours with neutral red (30 μg/ml) in fresh media, then washed with PBS, followed by the addition of lysis buffer (acetic acid/methanol, 80%/20%) and the absorbance at 540 nm is recorded. Results are expressed as mean ± S.D, calculations are performed using the Prism software package, ANOVA with Tukey post test was applied and P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.


    (Only for Reference)
Animal Research:

[3]

+ Expand
  • Animal Models: C57BL/6 mice
  • Formulation: saline
  • Dosages: 500 and 1000 mg/kg
  • Administration: i.p.
    (Only for Reference)

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro DMSO 30 mg/mL (198.78 mM)
Water 30 mg/mL (198.78 mM)
Ethanol 30 mg/mL (198.78 mM)

* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 150.92
Formula

C2HCl2O2.Na

CAS No. 2156-56-1
Storage powder
in solvent
Synonyms bichloroacetic acid, BCA

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Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID