Empagliflozin (BI 10773)
Molecular Weight(MW): 450.91
Empagliflozin (BI-10773) is a potent and selective SGLT-2 inhibitor with IC50 of 3.1 nM, exhibits >300-fold selectivity over SGLT-1, 4, 5 and 6. Phase 3.
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|Description||Empagliflozin (BI-10773) is a potent and selective SGLT-2 inhibitor with IC50 of 3.1 nM, exhibits >300-fold selectivity over SGLT-1, 4, 5 and 6. Phase 3.|
Empagliflozin shows >2500-fold selectivity for hSGLT-2 over hSGLT-1 (IC50 8300 nM) and >3500-fold selectivity over hSGLT-4, it exhibits >350-fold selectivity over hSGLT-5 (IC50=1100 nM) and >600-fold selectivity over hSGLT-6. No relevant inhibition of GLUT1 is observed up to 10 μM Empagliflozin. In a kinetic binding experiments, [3H]-empagliflozin displays a high affinity for SGLT-2 with a mean Kd of 57 nM in the absence of glucose, and shows a half-life of [3H]-empagliflozin-binding to SGLT-2 of 59 min in the absence of glucose.Its binding to SGLT-2 is competitive with glucose. 
|In vivo||High exposure of empagliflozin is achieved in dogs, with plasma concentrations >100-fold above IC50 measured 24 h after administration of 5 mg/kg empagliflozin. The total plasma clearance of empagliflozin in ZDF rat is 43 mL/min/kg, while in dogs is lower at 1.8 mL/min/kg. Cmax of empagliflozin in ZDF rat and dogs is 167 nM and 17254 nM, respectively.  Terminal elimination half-life in ZDF rat and dogs is 1.5 h and 6.3 h, respectively. Bioavailability of empagliflozin in ZDF rat is 33.2%, while in dogs is higher at 89.0%. Long-term treatment with empagliflozin, improves glycaemic control and features of metabolic syndrome in diabetic rats. |
[14C]-monosaccharide uptake inhibition experiments:Stable cell lines over-expressing hSGLT-1, -2, -4, -5 or -6 or rSGLT-1 or -2 are used for the sodium-dependent monosaccharide transport inhibition assay. Cells are pre-incubated in 200 μL uptake buffer (10 mM HEPES, 137 mM NaCl, 5.4 mM KCl, 2.8 mM CaCl2, 1.2 mM MgCl2, 50 μg/ml Gentamycin, 0.1% BSA) for 25 minutes at 37°C. 10 μM Cytochalasin B and test compound is added at different concentrations 15 minutes before the initiation of the uptake experiment. The uptake reaction is started by the addition of 0.6 μCi [14C]-labelled monosaccharide i.e. [14C]-labelled AMG, glucose, fructose, mannose or myo-inositol, in 0.1 mM AMG (or the respective non-radioactive monosaccharide). After incubation for 60 minutes (hSGLT-5), 90 minutes (hSGLT-4) or 4 hours (hSGLT-2) at 37°C, the cells are washed three times with 300 μL PBS and then lysed in 0.1 N NaOH with intermittent shaking for 5 minutes. The lysate is mixed with 200 μL MicroScint 40 and shaken for 15 minutes and counted for radioactivity in the TopCount NXT. For SGLT-4 and SGLT-5 assays cells are pre-incubated in pre-treatment buffer (uptake buffer containing choline chloride instead of NaCl) for 25 minutes prior to addition of uptake buffer.
|In vitro||DMSO||90 mg/mL (199.59 mM)|
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Clinical Trial Information
|NCT Number||Recruitment||Conditions||Sponsor/Collaborators||Start Date||Phases|
|NCT03027960||Not yet recruiting||Heart Failure|Type II; Diabetes||Yale University|Boehringer Ingelheim||February 28, 2017||Phase 2|
|NCT02768220||Not yet recruiting||SGLT-2 Inhibitors|Advanced Glycation End Products|Diabetes||Northwell Health||July 2017||Phase 4|
|NCT03008551||Not yet recruiting||Polycystic Ovary Syndrome||University of Hull||March 2017||Phase 2|Phase 3|
|NCT03030222||Not yet recruiting||Heart Failure||Saint Lukes Health System||March 2017||Phase 4|
|NCT02998970||Recruiting||Diabetes|Cardiovascular Disease||St. Michaels Hospital, Toronto|Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) LTD||January 2017||Phase 4|
|NCT03050229||Recruiting||Nocturnal Hypertension|T2DM (Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus)||Jichi Medical University|Boehringer Ingelheim|Eli Lilly and Company||January 2017||Phase 4|
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